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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

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Chapter 4 – Personality Traits: Fundamental Concepts and Issues What is generalization? Currency of everyday trait talk What is trait talk used for? Accounts for human individuality Disadvantage of trait talk Can become labels or stereotypes Simplify and gloss over important details What are traits Internal dispositions that are relatively stable over time and across situations Typically bipolar Broad individual differences in socioemotional functioning Immanuel Kant and his definitions of trait Temperament = traits and schema? Character = schema What are personality traits Individual differences in thoughts, feelings, and behavior The Four position of nature of traits Neurophysiological substrates Biological patternings in CNS that cause behavior and account for consistencies in socioemotional functioning Theorists involved Allport, Eysenck, Gray, Cloninger, Zuckerman Behavioral Dispositions Consistent ways that interact with external influences to influence person’s functioning Theorists involved Cattell, wiggins, Hogan, mccrae & costa Act frequencies Descriptive categories for behavior acts Theorists involved Buss and craik Linguistic categories Convenient fictions to categorize and make sense of diversity of human behavior and experience Traits do not exist outside mind  no causal influence People construct meanings for traits through social interaction Theorists inovolved Mischel, shweder, hampson, hare and gillett Which 2 contract each other Neuropsychic structures and Linguistic categories What is Galen’s theory of four humors? • sanguine personality  blood  person who’s blood was dominant bodily humor was bold, confident and robust in temperament • melancholic type  black bile  depressed and anxious person, pessimistic and brooding • choleric person yellow bile  restless, irritable, and won’t explode in anger • phlegmatic person  phlegm  aloof, apathetic, cold, and sluggish Kant’s view on these humors, can be Strong activity = cholerics divided into what different categories Weak activity = plegmatics Strong feeling = sanguine Weak feelings = melancholics Kretschmer and Sheldon’s theory of Belief that bodily forms and differences are constitutional psychology associated with personality traits What are the 4 theories of constitutional • Endomorph round and soft, overdevelopment psychology? of fat and underdevelopment of muscle and bones  easy going and soft • Ectomorph  thin and bony, with underdevelopment of fat and muscle  restraint, privacy, introversion • Mesomorph  muscular, physical vigor and stamina  aggressive, dominant, adventuruous, etc. Gordon Allport’s definitions of traits Neuropsychotic structure having capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior What are common traits Dimensions of human functioning upon which many different people are likely to differ What are personal dispositions Trait that is especially characteristic of given indiv. Instrumental for depicting individual person’s uniqueness What did Cattell call personal Unique traits dispositions? 2 types of personal disposition • Cardinal disposition – general pervasive trait for a given person  directly/indirectly involved in a wide range of person’s activities o “generosity” in life of Mother Teresa o Serves as defining feature of a person’s personality profile • Central dispositions – wide range of dispositions that may be characteristic for a given person and call into play on regular basis What are secondary dispositions More limited and less critical description of overall personality Nomothetic inquiry Comparing many different people with one another Idiographic approach Intensive study of single person Allport’s view on trait consistency People’s behavior is highly variable in situations, traits must be understand against background of variability Cattell’s definition of personality Permits prediction of what a person will do in a given situation Cattell’s three part classification of L-data: (life data) info about person’s real-life personality data: behavior Q-data: (questionnaire data) self-ratings on • L-data personality traits and self-report scores • Q-data T-data: (test data) observations of an individual • T-data What is factor analysis Researcher examines ways in which responses to different questions and measures cluster together Reduce large number of items to smaller set called “Factors” Surface traits Related elements of behavior tended to cluster together Source traits Cattell’s 16 basic factors underlying the many different surface traits that might be identified 3 functional categories of Cattell’s traits Dynamic traits – set individual into action to accomplish a goal Ability traits – concern effectiveness with which individual reaches goal Temperament traits – concern such stylistic aspects of response as speed, energy, and emotional reactivity How can individual differences on source Cattell’s 16 personality Factor Questionnaire or 16 traits be measured? PF What was the proof of trait measure’s Ability to predict behavior value for Cattell? What is Cattell’s specification equation Used to enhance behavioral prediction; differentially weighted each trait according to relevance for given situation What variables did Cattell believe Personality traits, temporary states and roles, and personality psychologists should measure situational factors Eysenck and his view on factor analysis Resultant trait factors obtained from factor analysis should be statistically independent of one another  uncorrelated or orthogonal Number of basic traits according to Eysenck = 3 Eysenck vs Cattell Cattell = 16 What are Eysenck’s big 3 supertraits Extraversion=introversion, neuroticism, (sometimes called types) psychoticism What do the first 2 factors deal with? First 2: personality characteristics within relatively Psychoticism? normal range of functioning Psychoticism: taps into dimensions of functioning that are typically associated with psychotic and psychopathic behavior What are the four ancient personality Choleric type – extraverted and highly neurotic types? (Figure 4.1 on pg 118) (emotionally unstable) Sanguine type – extraverted and emotionally stable (low neuroticism) Melancholic type -- introverted and highly neurotic Phlegmatic person – introverted and low neuroticism (emotionally stable) Characteristics of Extraverted-intraverted highly stable over time and neuroticism linked to identifiable biological substrates Individual differences in extraversion- Brain’s reticular activating system  responsible for introversion linked to modulation of arousal Individual differences in neuroticism linked Brain’s limbic system  implicated in emotionality to activity in the What is Galton’s lexical hypothesis Personality descriptions can be found by examining a language’s lexicon One criticism to the Big Five taxonomy Does not specify how particular traits that reside within each of the five domains relate to one another What is an “interpersonal circumplex” Comprehensive model of interpersonal tendencies  organized around two principle axes of Dominance and Love How was the interpersonal circumplex Arranged in circle, those at 180 degrees from each organized? other are opposite in meaning, 90 degrees from each other are conceptually unrelated What is Jerry Wiggins’ circumplex model bisects the interpersonal circumplex with of traits? independent axes of agency and communion According to Wiggins and Trapnell, which Neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness 3 of the big 5 are relevant to agency and communion? Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Used in business world to measure individual differences into 16 different types 16 different types divided into what four Extraversion versus introversion bipolar dimensions Sensing versus intuiting Thinking versus feeling Perceiving versus judging What is the general principle of Extent to which person is well socialized in culture, socialization includes agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism, communion Extraversion and Openness to Growth of the self  models of self0fulfillment, Experience is concerned with getting as much out of life as possible, agentic Most popular methods of measuring traits Self report questionnaires and rating scales What is construct approach Clear conceptual definition of trait embedded in larger personality theory Why should we add items that do not tap Decrease chances of excluding unexpectedly into trait of interest? relevant items while increasing the chances of
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