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PSYC 337 notes for sartor article.docx

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PSYC 337
Robert Pihl

TA: Johanna Harrison – Tuesdays 9:05am-9:55am Common Heritable Contributions to Low-Risk Trauma, High-Risk Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression Carolyn E. Sartor et al. Definitions: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a psychiatric disorder, involving exposure to a precipitating event. Phenotype: the visible characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction between its genetic makeup and the environment Context: Expand the understanding of relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to trauma exposure, PTSD, and MDD. Objectives: Measure the heritable influences on four different phenotypes (low and high-risk trauma, PTSD and MDD) in order to estimate the degree of commonality between the genetic and environmental bases of variance amongst them. Methods: Sample  Childhood Trauma study – volunteer twin panel, their siblings and parents from a large Australian National Health and Medical Research Council  Parents omitted  1532 adult twins & 1059 siblings from a large population sample of male and female twin pairs  Of the twins 899 high-risk families, and the remaining 633 control families  Criteria: they had experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse.  524 high-risk families – experienced childhood sexual or physical trauma (variant)  373 control families – experienced no trauma. The following criteria had to be similar to the high-risk group (constants) o Age, sex, zygosity, family structure Assessment  Semi structured psychiatric diagnostic telephone assessments  Twins were interviewed along with their siblings and parents.  Lifetime MDDinterviewers used a modification of the Semi- Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA)  Lifetime DSM-IV PTSDinterviewers used modified version of the National Comorbidity Survey interview Outcome Variables The traumatic events were classified as high or low-risk depending on the level of disturbance experienced by the individual, and thereby the relative risk of the development of PTSD. Statistical Methods  Regression analysis  Quadrivariate Cholesky  assess the natur
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