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PSYC 340 (12)
Chapter 8

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PSYC 340
Debra Ann Titone

Chapter Eight: - logographic stage: the child recognizes individual words by particular salient characteristics of the word - alphabetic stage: the child learns to read by grapheme-phoneme correspondences - orthographic stage: the child has acquired an adult like reading system - pre-alphabetic stage: children know little about letter sound correspondences - partial alphabetic reading phase: use their partial knowledge of letter names and sounds to form partial correspondences between spellings and pronunciations - full alphabetic phase: complete connections are made between letters and sounds - consolidated alphabetic phase: the child reads like an adult - phonological awareness: the awareness of the sounds of a word - epilinguistic knowledge: implicit knowledge about our language processes that is used unconsciously - metalinguistic knowledge: explicit knowledge about our language processes of which we are aware and can report and which we can make deliberate use - developing phonological awareness improves reading skills - English children pay more attention to the rime of a word - grapheme-phoneme correspondences are learned first - children could only read words by analogy in natural reading if they already possessed grapheme-phoneme recoding skills - younger-reading age children tend to read using grapheme-phoneme correspondences and older-reading age children tend to read by analogy based mainly on rime - older children learn to read more quickly in comparison with younger children - look and say or whole word method: children learn to associate the sound of a word with a particular visual pattern - phonic method: children are taught to associate sounds with letters and letter sequences and use these associations to build up the pronunciations of words - the most efficient way of learning to read in an alphabetical language is to learn what phonemes correspond to - analytic phonemes: reading is practiced using sets of words that share common sounds - synthetic phonics: children are taught all the letters and letter sounds before a
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