Chapter 12 comprehension.
Comprehension: stage of processing following word recognition and parsing.
Central theme: whether it is constructive process or a minimal process.
We go beyond literal material and make inferences.
Discourse: linguistic units composed of several sentences.
Comprehending spoken language affected by transience of speech signal and time
Semantic processing: working out what words, sentences mean.
Referential processing: working out the role of words and sentences in the model.
Text and discourse: coherent.
Referential coherence: consistency in who or what is being talked about.
Temporal coherence: consistency in when the events occur.
Locational coherence: consistency in where the events occur.
Causal coherence: consistency in why events happen.
Structure of individual sentences could affect the recall of the whole story.
Repetition of same sentence structure improves recall when content of the
Memory for Text and Inferences
Verbatim memory: very unreliable.
We tend to abstract information, and remember things that never actually happen.
People generally forget details of word order very quickly. We remember only the
meaning of what we read or hear.
Sachs: tested recognition of a sentence, they couldn’t remember syntax, but could
detect changes in meaning.
We start to purge memory of details after sentence boundaries. Jarvella: if a
phrase was part of the last sentence than the first sentence, they remembered it
Syntactic structure can influence immediate memory. Potter, Lombardi: tendency
to use same syntactic structure in material recalled from immediate memory
results from syntactic priming by target material. We tend to reuse same words,
sentence structures in the material we recall, because of the original material.
Immediate recall involves generation from meaninglevel representation than
Kintsch, Bates: Verbatim memory good after 2 days, greatly reduced after 5 days.
Memory worst for central topics, but good for extraneous remarks.
People are faster to recognize a word if it is present in the sentence.
people more likely to remember what they consider to be the more important
aspects of text.
MacWhinney, Mayhew: High Interactional Content, (more personal significance),
more likely to be recalled than LIC.
More important a proposition is, more likely to be remembered. Effects of prior knowledge.
Context before group, recalled much more than context after and no context
Context must improve our comprehension, improves recall. Provides a frame for