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Chapter 13

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McGill University
PSYC 340
Debra Ann Titone

Chapter 13: Language Production Speech Errors: - Until recently, models of speech production were primarily based on analyses of spontaneously occurring speech errors - Spoonerisms: speech error where the initial sounds of two words get swapped o E.x. o Utterance: you have hissed all my mystery lectures (target- missed all my history lectures) o Utterance: you have tasted the whole worm (target- wasted the whole term) o Utterance: the lord is a shoving leopard to his flock (target- a loving shepherd) - Freudian Slip: Freud noted the occurrence of slips of the tongue and proposed that they revealed our repressed thoughts o Not all Freudian slips arise from repressed sexual thought - Morpheme stranding: when the bound morpheme has been left in its original place while free morpheme has moved ( a weekend for MANIACS – a maniac for WEEKENDS) o Suggests they are involved in different processing Garett’s Model: - Processing is serial, at any one stage of processing only one thing is happening o However more than one thing is happening at different processing levels (e.g. planning what we are going to say even though we are speaking at the moment) o These levels of processing do not interact with one another o The model distinguishes two major stages of syntactic planning  Function level: word order is not yet explicitly represented. The semantic content of words is specified and assigned to syntactic roles such as subject and object. Content words are selected here.  Positional level: words are explicitly ordered. There is a dissociation between syntactic planning and lexical retrieval. Functional words are selected here. o Garett argued that content and function words play very different roles in language production. (content words- do most of the semantic work while function words- most of the syntactic work) o This model predicts that when parts of a sentence interact to produce a speech error, they must be involved in the same processing level (therefore certain types of error should never be found) o Evidence:  Morpheme exchanges- root or stem morpheme has been accessed independently of its plural affix (e.g. think maniac –s) • Suggests that content words behave differently from function words and are therefore involved in different processing stages  In (a weekend for MANIACS- a maniac for WEEKENDS) – the plural suffix was produced correctly for the sentence as it was actually uttered, not as it was planned. • Accommodation to the phonological environment suggests that the phonological specification of grammatical elements occurs rather late in speech production (after phonological forms of content words have been retrieved)  Word exchange errors: the sentence stress is left unchanged, suggesting that this is specified independently of the content words. • Think of it like a series of slots into which content words are inserted • Grammatical elements are part of the syntactic frame but their detailed phonological forms must be specified late  Garett observed that content words almost always only exchange with other content words and that function words exchange with ot
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