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Chapter 3

PSYC 471 Chapter 3: Why we do what we do-Chapter 3

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PSYC 471
Richard Koestner

Chapter 3: the need for personal autonomy Question: why is it that peoples intrinsic motivation is undermined by extrinsic rewards? DeCharmes: people strive for personal causation (to be behind their own behaviour) + Murrays idea of needs of the mind: including personal autonomy Motivator that undermines autonomy: Threat of punishment, works like money Mark Lepper: Deadlines, imposed goals, surveillance and evaluations all undermine IM Competition Study: Soma free choice paradigm Competition (win) vs. noncompetition group Competition group has less IM What might increase IM? Choice Study: Soma free choice paradigm Group 1: choice about which puzzle to do Group 2: no choice Choice group liked puzzles more and spent more time with them Limit setting is necessary, but not in a controlled way Giving choice within limit setting E.g. noncompliant woman on medication who needed autonomy support (doctor to be responsive to her individual needs) to follow regimen Need all information in order to feel a part of the process Study: Richard Ryan Thought impact of reward might depend on how the reward is interpreted (as controlling or not) Controlling group had less MI Noncontrolling didnt have detrimental effects So intent and interpretation of intent are key But what about when neutral (not controlling or noncontrolling) stance is taken? Neutrally presented rewards are interpreted as controllingcards are stacked in one direction: rewards are interpreted as controlling generally Lisa the 6 year old violinist example I have to do it now or I wont get the treasure! The pressure of incentive drove her to try and do as little as possible (you only needed to practice to get the award, you didnt need to practice effectively) therefore getting nothing from the violin practice Study: Reeve and Deci Two groups: both competition but one with pressure to win They were always allowed to win
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