Chapter 11: Stereotypes and Expectancies
← Most of us believe that stereotyping and prejudice are the problems of others, and not ourselves,
and our own minor lapses hardly pose a threat to the social order. E.E. Jones asserted that stereotypes
are just expectancies that we hold about a category. According to Jones, we have expectancies about
every person with whom we interact, making stereotyping a far more common component of everyday
thought than many of us would like to believe.
← We all have beliefs about the groups of individuals with whom we interact, which are derived from
prior experience. Expectancies about groups can be defined as our beliefs about the probability that
particular traits, features, characteristics, opinions and behaviors will be observed in those people at
some point during our future interactions with them. Stereotypes serve a function of simplifying thought
and perception to deliver meaning.
← Characteristics represented in a stereotype range from being 100% true to being 100% false.
Inaccurate frequently used stereotypes are what most people find troubling.
← Stages of cateogrization and inference proceed outside of awareness, and present to our conscious
mind a world that is recognizable, coherent, and coherent. Therefore, even if we are not explicitly
attempting to cateogize a person, each person we meet is quickly and quietly placed into some primitive
and broad boxes. Then there is the inescapable part of heightened accessibility of all the information in
that box, including that which we have learned but rejected.
← Another function of categorization is it allows us to make predictions about what to expect when
interacting with the person. Then we can plan our behaviour.
← Stereotyping often proceeds without our awareness, biasing us in ways we would never expect
← Self presentation concerns can affect the expression of stereotypic beliefs in two opposing ways.
First, people may publicly express a belief in a stereotype so that they are sen as agreeing with their
group. People foten perceive that their groupis more extreme than they themselves actually are. The
second way is that people may believe the stereotype privately, but be unwilling to express it publicly.
← There are two broad reasons why people conceal private beliefs even from themselves. The first is
that they do not want to face their own biases, and the second is that they don’t know the truth and they
have unconscious biases that lead them ti idstort what they express without realizing it.
← An implicit measure is one that taps a psychological event in a manner that conceals the true
nature of what is being measured from the persons being tested. Some examples are asking people to
form judgments about a person named Donald, a second is reaction times/
← Distinct from the knowledge we possess about a category/group are our feelings about the
category/group. The affect associated with a group is what is known as prejudice. ← In one study. Participants had to respond whether an adjective was “good” or “bad” with a prime
of either the picture of a white or black man. It was shown that white participants were faster at making
the evaluations of posoitive adjectives following White primes and engative adjectives following Black
← Another study found the same effect, and an even stronger effect twhen the words were relevant
to stereotypes of Blacks that were negative in nature.
← The Implicit Association test has the participant make two decisions at the same time, e.g.
pressing a button indicating whether a word is positive or negative and one indicating whether a face is
black or white. When the participant’s affective responses are the same (e.g. they feel positively toward
white people and a positive word is presented) the response is referred to as compatible, and when the
affective responses are different the response is referred to as incompatible. Implicit association
should be revealed by a facilitation in response times when compatible responses are being mapped
← In one study with Japanese American and Korean American students, the first task was pressing
one button when a Japanese surname appeared and one when a Korean surname appeared, the second
was whether or not a word was pleasant or unpleasant. Koreans had faster respnse times for a Korean
surname and a pleasant word, and the opposite was shown for Japanese participants. The same results
were found with white participants and their reaction to White or Black names.
← Some critics think that the IAT measures the associations that are present in a cultural
environment as opposed to an individual’s values, or that it might reflect the lack of familiarity with one
of the groups in question. However research shows that familiarity does not seem to be the root of the
IAT effect: in a study with Christians and Jewish surnames, the same results were found with names that
had been selected that were equally familiar to the participants. Other critics argue that their should be
two separate scales examined when using the IAT, their positive attitudes and their negative attitudes.
Further research continues on the IAT’s validity.
← Overtly negative beliefs about groups are less common in modern day society, as well as people do
tend to have less prejudiced beliefs in general. Aversive racism is a modern type of intergroup bias, in
which people who truly uphold the beliefs that oppose the old stereotypes are also latently holding
negative feelings toward the group. Their bias may not be visible to themselves or others. This
unconscious bias comes out 1) when behavior and attitude in domains not clearly related to race are
examined and 2) in situations where there are no clear norms about how to behave.
← Many aversive racists use to their defense “some of my best friends are Black (Jewish etc.),
however this does not mean that their attitude toward the group as a general is unbiased.
← In one study, either or white or black confederate’s car had broken down and accidentally called
the White participant, who was either conservative or liberal. Implicit stereotyping could be detected by
a greater tendency to hang up early on Black callers than on White callers. Results showed that when the
motorist had time to explain his dilemma, liberals helped a Black person more than conservatives,
however liberals also hung up early on Black people more than white people (and more than
conservatives did) which shows that implicit stereotypes existed when the situation’s norms are unclear.
2 ← Regardless of whether we have egalitarian values, anti-stereotypic personal beliefs, and a
dedication to fairness, a stereotype can still be triggered simply because we know the stereotype.
Therefore we can be biased by stereotypes just because they are more accessible.
← STUDY: participants see pairings of words like “white-ambitious” and “black-ambitious” and are
asked to respond yes if the second word could be conceived as possessed by a member of the group.
People responded faster to pairings that were stereotypic, revealing an implicit activation of the
stereotype. Some theorists follow a spreading activation model which holds that all information
associated with a stereotyped feature is triggered in the lexicon and becomes perceptually ready upon
attending to that feature. Others propse a parallel-constraint-satisfaction model which asserts that not
all information that is stored in the lexicon associated with a particular category is triggered by
encountering a person exhibiting behaviour that fits that category, instead expectancies and context
bolster the activation of some information and inhibit the activation of other information.
← We begin to learn about stereotypes as soon as we are able to understand speech. Devine asserts
that the activation of the association network relating to a stereotype. STUDY: more stereotyped words
than neutral words were subliminally shown to one condition, and more neutral words than stereotyped
words were subliminally shown to another condition. Then they were asked to form impressions of a
person “Donald” who was acting in an ambiguous manner. Donald was rated as more hostile by
participants who had been primed with stereotyped words. Both Low and high prejudice people were
equally likely to have their stereotypes triggered.
← Devine’s findings do not suggest that peoeple are doomed to use stereotypes once activated, it
simply suggests that stereotypes are inevitably activated.
← Confirmatory bias: information is processed in manner that confirms the existing stereotype.
Research finds that the use of stereotypes is something that people can control if they become aware of
the stereotype’s influence.
← Study: asked participants to make judgments about a group of lines. One group was told that lines
in group A were short and lines in group B were long. The other half of the participants saw the same
lines in the same order, but membership did not ocincide with line length. The participants were asked
to judge the difference in length between two consecutive lines. People with a stereotype that group A
lines were shorter than group B lines saw a greater difference in length between the two lines than they
← Minimal group studies: the simple act of being in a group creates a bias where people behave in
ways that differentiate their group from others. E.g. rather give money to their own group (even when
the group was chosen arbitrarily).
← STUYD: research participants listen to a discussion between 6 people, three of whom were white
and three of whom were black. They then calculated the number of errors people made when
remembering who said what. People were more likely to confuse what a white person said with another
white person, and what a black person with another black person ( there were a greater number of
intracategory errors rather than intercategory errors)
3 ← Study: participants asked to play admission board member and evaluate applications to law
school. Application was either strong or weak and either by a White or Black applicant. They found that
when White participants made judgments of two identical applications, they made more extreme
evaluations for Black vs. White applicants ( a strong application was seen as stronger, a weak application
was seen as weaker). This is because when people think about people from a different group, less
features are incorporated into their thinking, and less complex judgments, more extreme judgments are
made than when thinking about their own group.
← Outgroup homogeneity: the perception of highly differentiated ingroup contrasted with a
simple and undifferentiated outgroup
← Study: white participants were asked to sort cards with traits printed on them so that traits that
went together were grouped together. When they thought they were representing the characteristics of
white people, they formed more piles they when they thought they were representing the characteristics
of black people.
← Ingroup homogeneity is likely to be seen when evaluations are being made on traits that are
highly relevant to the ingroup.
← Traits can have multiple meanings, but when the trait is linked to a member of a group, the
stereotype can dictate the meaning of the trait. (e.g. aggressive is interpreted differently for an aggressive
lawyer vs. an aggressive construction worker)
← Even when groups are made using the minimal-group procedure, people are more likely to
spontaneously infer positive traits about an ingroup than an outgroup member.
← Study: participants were told a sentence about a person (either garbage collector or professor),
and the behavior the person performed was either consistent or inconsistent with their stereotype . They
were then asked of certain probe words were in the sentence e.g. smart. Participants found that
responses to words implied in the behavior descriptions were faster when the actor in the sentence
belonged to a group whose stereotypic traits were inconsistent with the behavior. This suggests that
participants did not make the inference implied by the behavior. In a follow up experiment, participants
were subliminally primed to activate the actor’s group membership. Participants were slower to indicate
that the trait probe was not part of the sentence when the subliminally flashed group labels were
consistent with the behavior in the sentence rather than inconsistent. This shows that categorizing
people according to stereotypes facilitating making spontaneous trait inferences that are compatible with
the stereotype, but inhibits the likelihood of making inferences when the behavior being observed
implies a trait that is inconsistent with the stereotype.
← Study: research participants make judgments of women and men. Participants saw a picture of a
man or a woman and need to make a judgment- how tall was this person? When making judgments in
feet and inches, the participants saw men as significantly taller than women. When they were instructed
to make judgments by evaluating each person’s height relative to a typical person, the difference noted
on the objective measure was reduced by 80% (e.g. using different standard when amking the judgment
for women or for men). Therefore people use stereotypes even when judgments seemilngy suggest that
stereotypes are not being used.
4 Study: Hindu research participants were asked toe valuate Muslims perform eith erpositive or negative
behavior in different contexts. They had to choose form alist of why the participant behaved that way.
Findings indicated a patter of biased attributions that confirmed existing stereotypes. Internal
attributions were more likely to be used to explain the behavior of a muslim when it was negative as
opposed to positive.
Study: how white Americans judged an ambiguous act performed by either a White or a Black person.
Participants were told that two other individuals in the next room were on videotape, and asked to judge
their behavior. One participant shoved the other; could be interpreted as friendly or hostility. Some
participants showed an interaction between two white people, between two black people, a black person
shoving a white person, or a white person shoving a black person. The results showed that when a black
person shoved a white person, the participants labeled th