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SOCI 211 (34)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Logic of Sampling

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Department
Sociology (Arts)
Course
SOCI 211
Professor
Yasmin Bayer
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7: Logic of sampling Political polling is one of the most viable uses of survey sampling - Political polling rests on observations - The key to generalizing from a sample to a larger population is probability sampling, which involves the important idea of random selection - Social research as a whole is both art and science, sampling leans towards science - Form of sampling based on probability sampling, this technique involves the selection of a “random sample” - Probability sampling remains the primary method for selecting large, representative samples for social science research Two types of sampling methods Non-probability sampling: - Used in situations that don’t permit kinds of probability samples used in large-scale surveys (Example: homeless people; there’s no list of homeless people) Non-probability sampling: any technique in which samples are selected in some fashion not suggested by probability theory (Examples: purposive, snowball and quota sampling) Four types 1. Reliance on available subjects  Relying on available subjects, such as stopping people at a corner (risky method)  This method doesn’t allow control over the representative ness of a sample  Must be extra cautious when generalizing from their data 2. Purposive or judgmental sampling  Selecting sample on the basis of your own knowledge of the population and the purpose of the study  Might wish to select the widest variety of respondents to test the broad applicability of questions 3. Snowball sampling  Appropriate when members are difficult to locate, such as the homeless, prostitutes, etc.  Researchers collect data on a few members and ask those individuals to provide the information needed to locate other members 4. Quota sampling  Addresses the issue of representative ness  Begins with a table, describing the characteristics of the target population  Depending on the research, needs proportion of genders, age categories, education levels, etc.  Type of sampling in which units are selected into the sample on a basis of pre- specified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied Social researchers speak of respondents as people who provide information about themselves, an informant is a member of the group who can talk directly about the group - Informant: who is willing to tell you what he or she knows, possibly a member of the sect – who could give you some background information about the group (religious etc.) Probability sampling: - Large-scale surveys to provide useful descriptions of the total population, a sample of the individuals from a population must contain essentially the same variations that exist in the population Probability sampling: samples selected with probability theory, typically involving some random selection mechanism Conscious and unconscious: sampling bias Bias: those selected are not typical or representative of the larger population Representative ness and probability of selection - Repr
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