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SOCI 250 (10)
Chapter 14

Tepperman Chapter 14

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Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 250
Jason Carmichael

Tepperman Chapter FourteenPopulations Cities and NeighbourhoodsTerms Demographic transitionshift in a population or society through a series of stages from high birth and death rates to low birth and death ratesEnvironmental racisma type of discrimination that results in the concentration of poor racial minorities in densely packed poorly served urban neighbourhoods often with greater levels of pollution and located near waste dumps and heavy industryGentrificationthe restoration and upgrading of deteriorated urban property by middleclass or affluent people often resulting in displacement of lowerincome peopleGemeinschaftsocial situations in which those involved treat one another as ends rather than as means primary relationships based on sentiment found most often in rural lifeGesellschaftsocial situations in which those involved treat one another as means rather than ends secondary relations based primarily on calculation and individual interest found most often in city lifeMechanical solidarityDurkheims term for the kind of tight homogeneous social order typical of a preindustrial primarily rural societyOrganic solidarityDurkheims term for the new social order of industrial society which was based on interdependent though not necessarily intimate relationshipsNeighborhood effectsinfluences on peoples lives that result from living in one type of neighbourhood eg Rich vs poor dangerous vs safe rather than anotherPopulation Densitythe number of people who live within a geographic area usually expressed as people per square mile or square kilometerPositive checkspart of Malthusian theory these prevent overpopulation by increasing the death rate They include war famine pestilence and diseasePreventive checksin Malthusian theory these prevent overpopulation by limiting the number or survivals of live births They include abortion infanticide sexual abstinence delayed marriage and contraceptive technologiesSuburbanization the process by which housing spreads almost unhindered into once rural regions surrounding the city core This greatly expands the geographic size of cities and takes out of production valuable agricultural land and there is a noticed shift of the affluent out of the urban centre to these surrounding areasUrbanizationthe growth in the proportion of the population living in urbanized areas There is also an increasing appearance in rural and smalltown areas of behavior patterns and cultural values associated with bigcity lifePage 375380 INTRODUCTIONExamines the interactions between human society and the built environment and problems that emerge from these interactionsBring together two central topics of modern sociology population studies and urban sociology The physical and material backdrops of social life and human ingenuity technology is at the root of various social problems and is the source of potential solutions to these problems Some people believe that a high population will lead to disaster Others believe that more peoplemore geniuses who can produce more resources The human species has proven hugely creative when confronting difficulty This theory suggests that to solve the problems associated with population growth instead of having fewer people we need more betterequipped and better educated peopleWe shouldnt have a suspicion of technology but should instead have a commitment to using technology for the good of humanity Problems are not the population but the human failure to manage population and cities more creatively and effectively Humanity is the problem and a betterorganized humanity is the solution The organizations of cities is a currently problem and the rapidity of population growth and urbanizationWORLD POPULATION IN CONTEXTHuman population growth started off slowly and increased rapidly since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s Between the year 1 AD and 1750 the worlds population doubled only once in the last 250 years the worlds population has doubled three times The global population is still increasing but worldwide population growth is slowing downPopulation growth occurs unevenly around the world with the most developed countries experiencing zero or negative growth Excessive population growth seems like it will soon become a social problem of the pastHowever new problems ariselocation immigration internal migration crowding and depopulationTHE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION Demographic transition refers to a shift from high birth and death rates to lowoccurs in parallel with a societys socioeconomic developmentFirst stage of demographic transitiononumber of births and deaths high but equal o steady population size with minimal growthSecond stageo population enters early stages of urbanization and industrialization
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