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SOCI 250 (10)
Chapter 7

Tepperman Chapter 7

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Department
Sociology (Arts)
Course
SOCI 250
Professor
Jason Carmichael
Semester
Fall

Description
Tepperman Chapter 7Crime Terms CrimeAny behaviour that in a given time and place is prohibited by applicable statutory law When a law is violated a crime is said to have been committedConventional CrimesThe traditionally illegal behaviours that most people think of as crime For example homicide and sexual assault are given the most media coverage but account for only 12 per cent of all crimesDeterrenceA justice system based on deterrence assumes that crimes are rational acts in which the offender weighs the perceived benefits of committing the crime against the probability of being caught and the severity of the punishment It assumes that the probability of being punished is high and that the law enforcement agencies are competent and efficient in apprehending offendersDifferential SocializationThe processes whereby individuals learn to behave in accordance with prevailing standards of culture or gender For example boys and men learn to be less inhibited in using aggressive and violent actions and this may account for the disproportionate number of males involved in criminal activityHomicideThe killing of a human being by another directly or indirectly by any means includes murder ie the unlawful killing of another human being with malicious intent and manslaughter the unlawful killing of another person without sufficient intent to constitute murderLawsRules of conduct that may provide for the punishment of violators In other words the formal rules about what a societys members can and cannot doOrganized CrimeA group or system of professional criminals who practise illegal activities as a way of life and whose criminal activities are coordinated and controlled through a hierarchical system of bossesSelfreportingThe victim reports to authorities that a crime has occurred This is the most direct method of measuring crime rates However it is not the most accurate as changes in the crime rate reflect changes in victims willingness to reportSocial Bond TheoryA type of control theory A strong social bond prevents most people from succumbing to the temptation to engage in criminal activitiesSocial DisorderOrderThe prevalence of generally harmonious relationships used synonymously with social organization This condition exists when rules are obeyed and social situations are controlled and predictable Rules serve not only to indicate which behaviours are acceptable bu also to allow participants to anticipate the behaviour of othersStrain Anomie TheoryMerton holds that strain is produced when social structure prevents people from achieving culturally defined goals through legitimate means and according to Durkheim anomie is a condition characterized by a breakdown of norms and personal disorganization which may lead to crime Merton outlines various adaptive strategies conformity ritualism retreatism rebellion and innovation Innovation is most commonly associated with criminal activities which include theft robbery tax fraud embezzlement and organized crimeSubculture TheoryThis approach to the study of deviance investigates the norms that set a group apart from mainstream society Specifically it gives special insight into the subculture of the criminal looking into the values and belief systems that may be conducive to delinquent and criminal actionVice CrimesDeviant behaviour that may be defined as immoral for example gambling prostitution drug trafficking These crimes provide the greatest opportunity for organized crimeVictimization SurveysSamples of people are asked how many times within a given time period they have been the victim of particular crimesWhite Collar CrimesThe crimes committed by whitecollar workers and management in the course of their occupations They always are distinguished from conventional criminal offences such as robbery or murder Whitecollar crimes are performed in the course of normal work and usually occur in reputable organizationsPage 175180INTRODUCTIONCrime has real effects on peoples health safety and sense of wellbeing Can be traumatic and cause people to withdraw from normal lifeVictimization on a large scale can reduce peoples trust in social institutions and their willingness to take part in community lifereduce a communitys vitality and cohesion Crime and its aftermath can damage the central institutions of civil society families workplaces schoolshinders ability to carry out the most basic social activities of learning earning and raising childrenThus crime is a social problemMen are more likely than women to be involved in violent crimes both as victims and offendersSome researchers argue that criminal behaviour especially property crime is a result of rational calculation that takes into account the pros and cons of a crime Others argue that crime will result whenever groups of unequal amounts of power and influencecrime increases with social inequality Two different beliefsstrict law enforcement and harsh enforcement vs prisons cause as many problem as they solvethey teach crime and harden criminals Moral panic is common especially in cases involving sex violence or children Example AMBER Americas Missing Broadcast Emergency Responsehas not achieved and probably cannot achieve its ambitious goals it is an imaginary solution to a socially constructed problem
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