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8. Development.docx

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McMaster University
Tracy Prowse

Week 8 Readings 18/03/2013 11:19:00 AM pg 250-282 Defining Development and Approaches to It Development – cultural change is shaped by development/directed change aimed at improving human welfare Poverty – the lack of tangible and intangible assets that contribute to life and the quality of life Invention – the discovery of something new  evolve gradually through experimentation and the accumulation of knowledge but some appear suddenly  i.e. polio vaccine, Jeffersonian democracy Diffusion – spread of culture through contact  can occur in mutual borrowing, or transfer from the dominant culture to the less dominant (through force or education/marketing processes  May occur through assimilation (a weaker culture is no longer distinguishable as having a separate identity) or acculturation (taking in of another culture) Theories and Models of Development  Modernization o form of change by economic growth through industrialization, market expansion, political consolidation through the state, technological innovation, literacy and options for social mobility  Growth Oriented Development o Development as induced change, brought about through applying modernization theory in so-called developing countries emerged after WW2 o Trickled-down effect: gradual increase in wealth among the less well off as it filters down from the more well off  Distributional Development o contrasts with growth-oriented development in its emphasis on social equirt in benefits, especially in terms of increase income literacy and health o Based on evidence that growth oriented strategies, applied without concern for distribution, actually increase social inequality o “rich get richer; poor get poorer”  Human Development o emphasizes investing in human welfare o focuses on health, education, security and safety  Sustainable Development o forms of improvement that do not destroy non-renewable resources and are financially supportable over time Institutional Approaches to Development  Large Scale Development Institutions o Multilateral Institutions – several countries are donor members o Bilateral Institutions – one country is a donor, the other is a recipient  Grassroots Approaches o local initiated grassroots approaches o Social capital – refers to the intangible resources that exist through social ties, trust and cooperation o ex. Basic Ecclesiastical Community (BEC) is a religious group which spreads the meaning of Christianity in the Philippines Development Project  a set of activities designed to put development policies into action  Development Project Cycle o Cycle steps: 1. Project Identification 2. Project Design 3. Project Appraisal 4. Project Implementation 5. Project Evaluation o Failures for this: 1. Project did not fit the cultural and environmental context 2. Benefits of the project did not reach the target group 3. Intended beneficiaries were worse off after the project than before it  Cultural Fit o taking the local culture into account in project design Anthropological Critique of Development Project  Traditional Development Anthropology – anthropologist takes on the role of helping to make development policies and programs work better
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