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Chapter 5

ANTHROP 1AA3 Chapter 5: Chapter 5 Definitions

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Chapter 5 - Early Hominins: Australopithecus: Genus of Pliocene and Pleistocene hominins Homo: Genus to which modern humans and their ancestors belong Bipedalism: Upright locomotion on two feet ForamenMagnum:Openinginthebaseoftheskillthroughwhichthespinalcordpassesenroute to the brain Homo habilis: Early species belonging to our genus, Homo, with cranial capacities averaging about 630-640 cc, about 50 percent of the brain capacity of modern humans. Dating from about 2 million years ago. Homo erectus: The first hominin species to be widely distributed in the Old World. The earliest finds are possibly 1.8 million years old. The brain (895-1040 cc) was larger than that found in any of the Australopithecus or H. habilis but smaller than the average brain of a modern human Sahelanthropus tchadensis: Probable primitive hominin, known from fossils dated 7 to 6 million years ago from a site in Chad Orrorin tugenensis: An apparently bipedal primate dating to between 5.8 million and 6 million years, making it possibly the earliest known hominin Ardipithecus ramidus: A primitive hominin, known from fossils dated at 4.5 million years ago from the Middle Awash regions of Ethiopia Gracile australopithecines: The earliest group of Australopithecines, usually differentiated from the robust Australopithecines by their lighter dentition and smaller faces Australopithecus anamensis: An archaic hominin, known from fossils dated at 4.5 to 4 million years ago from sites in Kenya Australopithecus afarensis: An archaic hominin, known from fossils dated at 4 to 3 million years ago from sites in Ethiopia and Tanzania Australopithecus africanus: An archaic hominin, known from fossils dated at 3 to 2.4 million years ago from sites in southern Africa Australopithecus bahrelghazali: An archaic hominin, known from fossils dated at 3.5 million years a from a site in Chad Australopithecus garhi: A species discovered in 1999 in the Afar region of Ethiopia, dating about 2.5 million years ago. They had a projecting ape-like face and small braincase, similar to A. afarensis but with much larger teeth Kenyanthropusplatyops:Anarchaichominin,knownfromfossilsdatedat3.5to3.3millionyears ago from Kenya. Robust Australopithecus: A later group of Australopithecus usually differentiated from the gracile Australopithecus by their heavier dentition and larger faces Sagittal crest: A ridge of bone that runs lengthwise along the middle of the top of the skull, indicating exceptionally strong chewing muscles in the jaw Australopithecus aethiopicus: An early robust Australopithecus Australopithecus boisei: An East African robust Australopithecus species dating from 2.2 million to 1.3 million years ago with somewhat larger cranial capacity than A. africanus. No longer thought to be larger than other Australopithecus, it is robust primarily in the skull and jaw, most strikingly in the teeth. Compared with A. robustus, A. boiseis has even more features that reflect a huge chewing apparatus Australopithecus Robustus: A robust Au
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