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Chapter 2

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
David Goutor
Semester
Spring

Description
Anthropology 1AA3 Reading #7 (Chapter 2 Pg. 40­52) Sex and Gender  Gender: the roles that people perform in their households and communities and  the values and attitudes that people have regarding men and women.   Gender is a cultural category   Sex is a biological category  Gender Identity: how people internalize and enact those attitudes and  expectations that are associated with their gender category • Defined by how people dress, walk, and speak  Gender Construct (Model): the set of cultural assumptions about gender roles  and values and the relations between the genders that people learn as members of  their society  Gender is not usually recognized as “culturally derived” because it is ingrained by  socialization and seems to be of a persons “nature” Evolutionary Perspectives  We were once chimpanzees (5­6 million years ago)  Complex adaptions because of climatic change (southern and eastern Africa) led  to species differentiation and distinction of ecological zones Australopithecines (hominid ancestors of modern humans)   Established about 3.5 million years ago  Small by modern standards   Different from other primates   They could walk upright  Adaption:   Changes in the knees (allowing them to lock for support with  extended legs)  Development of arches in the feet to support body weight  Shift in balance from heel to toe in walking  Repositioning the spine and pelvis to support upright posture Nonhuman Primates:  Different degrees of sexual dimorphism  Some species have differences in (between males & females):  Height  Weight  Structural Features   Decline in sexual dimorphism in human evolution was due to the dual factors of  decreases in male body size and increase in female structure Nonhuman Primates Physical Gender Differences (Early Hominids): 1. Size of Pelvis (factor in human evolution – 2 million years ago) 2. Enlargement of the brain (caused danger for pregnant women for child to pass  through pelvis) 3. This changed the size and positioning of the pelvis (caused underdeveloped infants  in comparison to other mammals) Theories of Human Evolution: Hager:  Nonhuman primate species have different degrees of sexual dimorphism  Structural differences between males and females (height, weight,  structural features)  Ehrenberg:  Hominid species evolved 2 million years ago before evidence
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