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Chapter 2

Chapter 2-Identity.docx

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McMaster University
Antonio Sorge

Chapter 2: Identity Culture, Personality, and Identity (pg. 49)  Enculturation is when culture is passed onto infants and other members of that society through formal and informal process  Margret Mead an anthropologist conducted fieldwork in the 1930s. Her findings indicated that: o Culture is developed in a person, it is not something they are born with o The way the infant was cared for leads to different personalities  Ruth Benedict argued that culture promotes distinct personalities  Cultural Configuration are traits that has been mixed to form patterns shared by everyone in that society  Ethnocentric classify cultures according to Western psychological values and features  Reductionist: emphasize only one or two features  Totalizing: The use of local variation to build a more powerful national character o Ex. “the French”, “the English”, “the Japanese” *Notice they have THE* Class and Personality (pg. 51)  Image of the limited good o Was proposed by George Foster’s o This model co-exist with personality traits (Ex. Jealousy) o This model states that, since supplies are limited, as some people become more wealthier, others will become poorer  Ex. A pie being split equally for 6 people. If one person takes more than one piece than the division of the remaining pie will be less for the 5 people.  Culture of poverty explains the personality/behavior of the poor and why poverty continues o This theory was proposed by Oscar Lewis (1966) Person – Centred Ethnography (pg.52)  Person – centred ethnography is a research on individuals. They see how an individuals psychology and subjective experience shape their culture o Individuals and culture are interactive  Study of individuals provides clear examples of ethnography and ethnology 1 Chapter 2: Identity Personality and Identity Formation from Infancy through Adolescence (pg. 53)  Life stages of an individuals are: o Infancy o Childhood o Adolescence o Middle age o Old age  Many Western psychologist argue that: o Bonding is crucial for the parents to have a parental attachment to the infant o If bonding does not occur after the infant’s birth, then it will NOT develop later on.  Nancy Scheper – Hughs argue that: o Bonding occurs after infancy Gender in Infancy (pg. 55)  Sex has 3 biological markers o Genitals  Males = Penis, Females = Vagina o Chromosomes  Males = XY Chromosomes, Females = XX Chromosomes o Hormones  Males = Testosterone, Females = Estrogen  Gender is a cultural construction and it refers to the learned behavior and beliefs with males and females Informal Learning & Formal Schooling (pg. 56)  Toys and games shape children’s personalities  Media effects the child’s socialization and personality acquisition  School has important effects on the formation of personality and identity  Students learn their native language, kinship,
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