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Chapter 8

Chapter 8: Globalization.docx

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McMaster University
Antonio Sorge

Chapter 8: Globalization What is Globalization?  Anthropologist refer globalization as the changes due to: o Technological advancements o Industrializations o Labour (migration)  Globalization continues to occur in today’s society o Ex. McDonalds, Apple Computers etc.  Globalization may not always bring people to get, but may cause cultural and political conflicts o Ex. 9/11 incident  Globalization can be recognized by many aspects in our society such as: o Schools  There are many students coming from different backgrounds o Professional sports teams  They contain people with different backgrounds too  Ex. Yao Ming, Kobe Bryant  Technology is constantly advancing everyday o Ex. By the time Apple release the newest iPhone, they probably already have the next iPhone already on its way  In postindustrial societies, manufacturing industries has been replaced with high-tech technology such as computers.  Multinational corporations are merging with larger companies to increase economic efficiency and revenues Anthropologist used three theories to study globalizations: Modernization Theory o Max Weber  Recognized that cultural values and beliefs influenced the development of certain technology and economic conditions in society  Modernization of society has influenced, economic, historical, sociological and anthropological interpretations o Modernization model was used to understand globalization and Cold War o Changes in value can be resulted by education and will result in erosion of traditionalism o According to W.W. Rostow, industrial society takes places through 5 ways  Traditional stage  Preserving values and attitude to economic and political development  Culture-change stage Chapter 8: Globalization 1  Cultural and value changes  Takeoff Stage  Once traditionalism begin to weaken, there will be an increase in investments and savings  Self-sustained growth stage  Members of society intensify economic progress through industrial technology  High economic growth  This stage involves aiming for a high standard of living by mass production and consumption of goods  The Cold War led to the classification of societies into three worlds: o First World  Made up of industrial state along with capitalist economic system  Industries become developed first o Second World  Made up of industrial state along with socialist economic system o Third World  Pertains to the premodern agricultural states that maintain traditionalism  One criticism about modernization model is that the third world countries failed to produce economic and technological development  Third World countries remain undeveloped  Underdeveloped countries has a low income for national products Dependency Theory  This is a socioeconomic development model  It explains globalization and how inequality among societies differ such as rich developed societies vs. poor underdeveloped societies  Industrialized capitalist countries take advantage of underdeveloped precaptialist countries for cheap labour and raw materials  The expansion of manufacturing companies results an increase in demand for raw materials for production of goods  Since underdeveloped countries offered cheap labour, industrialized societies are increasing in profit because they are not paying that much to the workers  Underdeveloped countries began depending on developed countries  Imperialism is the increase in demand for cheap labour, raw materials, consumer goods and markets World-system Theory  World-system theory explains global trends  This model represents Modernization theory and Dependency theory  Immanuel Wallerstein developed this model  World-system model placed all the countries into three categories o Core societies Chapter 8: Globalization 2  Are the powerful industrial nations  Dominates all the other societies in a economical sense o Peripheral societies  Are the nonindustrialized countries  They have little control of their own economies  Dominated by the core societies  Wallerstein believes that this society can develop economically o Semiperipheral societies  Between the core and peripheral (in the middle)  This society is industrialized but not to the point where it is as fully developed or advanced as core societies  Glocalization o Absorbing and localizing the global  Anthropologists study the effects of globalization by observing people in local areas and how technology, international economics and political policies affects them  After the Cold War, a new economic development has risen o The new development incorporated
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