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Anthro 1Z03- Anatomically Modern Humans.docx

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Hendrik Poinar

Anatomically Modern Huma Upper Palaeolitic and People of the New World Anthropology 1Z03- March 31 , 2010 Homo sapiens sapiens (sub species)  Pleiestocene epoch (1.8 mya – 10,000 ya)= glacial period (Ice Age) o Wisconsin Glaciation (the last ice age) (117-10000) o The Wum or Weichsel is the European version o Coldest period of Wisconsin (20,000- 180000)  Holocene epoch (10,000 ya – Present) o Interglacial period (warm period) o Note: warmest period of Hologene/climatic optimum  Hypithermal (Eastern N.A.)  Altithermal (Western N.A.) – 5,000 BC Chronological Guide  Chinese H. erectus from 2 mya or to 200,000 ya  H. erectus in Java from 750,000 ya (Ngangdong)  H. neanderthalensis form 130,000- 32,000 or 24,000  H.sapiens= anatomically modern in Africa (160,000 ya)  H sapiens= anatomically modern in Asia (90,000) and Europe (35,000) Characteristics of H.sapiens  Domed skull, large brain, distinct chin, smaller jaws and teeth  Refined skeleton (smaller jaws, small brow ridges, flat/retracted face)  Narrowing of nasal aperture Herto, Ethopia (Homo sapiens idaltu)  Human skulls and subsitence remains  Defined skulls with polish or patina from repeditive holding (Death ritual??)  Similarity to Kabwe (broken hills skulls)- Archaic Homo Sapies o There is some continuity and development within eastern Africa o Evidence of the out of Africa model Note: Look up the site for anatomically modern humans  Omo Kibish (Skull- Ethipia)  Klasies River Mouth (South Africa)- mandible with a distinct chin  Tianyuan Cave (China)- mandible and partial skeleton  Lake Mungo- 40,000 ya (Australia)- have few erectine traits  Skhul- 90,000 (Isreal)-Eg. Skhul 5- thus, Neanderthals in area- Eastern migration  Pestera cu Oase (Romania)- Oase 2 Skull found  Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic)- some Neanderthal-like traits  Cro-Magnon (Europe) Models for the Apperance of Anatomically Modern Humans  Multiregional Continuity Model- base population spreads across old world o Gradual in-place development from H.ergaster erectus to anatomically modern humans o Simutaneous evolution to modern traits occurs o No speciation could occur because of continues interbreeding interactions across the Old World o Wipes away notions of boundedness between species o E.g. Jinniushan- northeastern China- 200,000 ya o E.g. MAba- southeastern China- with anatomically modern humans o Continuous gene flow between species  Out-of-Africa Model – No continuity- creatures die out except H. Sapiens o Genetic and Physical replacement by African moderns o Single location as homeland (East Africa) o Homeland should have the most genetic diversity o Longest time for humans to develop mutations and change form o Implies co-existence with other species in genus homo. o Implies biological, physical, behavioral and cultural advantages o Implies non-moderns were evolutionary dead-ends o Note: Neanderthalensis would not be the same as H.Sapiens o Note: See slide- “Out of Africa transformations”- note species? o No gene flow between species o mtDNA- “Mitochondrial Eve”  Lived 200,000 ya  Later mtDNA suggest that there is an ancient common ancestor  Y chromosome research (270,000) suggests there is a common ancestor (also supported by skeletal findings)  Assimilation (Partial Replacement) Model o Could have developed from Africa, but evolved and mated in other regions of world o “Hybrids” between moderns and pre-moderns work into the gene pool o Get anatomically modern humans o Morphological replacement occurred through mating and modern human traits were favored through natural selection o Eg. Neanderthal like moderns  Mladec- cranium with predominant brow ridges (Sexual dimorphism)  Vindija and Velika Pecina (Croatia)- anatomically modern humans  Zafarrya Cave (Spain)- neanderthals  Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Prtugal)- 4 yr old child- mixed modern traits  Neanderthals created the Chatelperronian Industry o Characterized by blade tools  Look up the 5 types of stone tool industries in the slides (be able to pick out of list)  Eastern Gravettian- eastern Europe- mammoths, small game hunters  Early sewing needles found in Russia  Earliest known ceramic figurines in Czech Republic – can get textile impressions  Mezin- Ukraine- mammoth ivory bracelet  45,000 more efficient blades and microliths o Flake component implies o Organics, bones, antler and wood tools used o Composite tools: made up of a lot of different materials (stone, wood, bone etc) o Blade core: uses indirec
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