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Anthro 1Z03- The Origins, Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans.docx

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Hendrik Poinar

The Origins, Evolution & Dispersal of Modern People Anthropology 1Z03- March 24 , 2010 Importance of identifying Modern humans via Binomial Nomenclature  Archaic Homo sapiens / Homo sapiens heidelbergensis o Our species with subtle differences o Skeletal and developmental/cognitive/linguistic differences  Homo heidelbergensis o A species from us within the genus homo o Some may have “speciated” and become modern Homo Sapiens o Heidelbergensis was the branch point (to neaderthalensis/sapiens) Archaic Homo sapiens / Homo sapiens heidelbergensis  Mainly found in Jinniushan, China  Had a mixture of older and newer traits o Supraorbital Browridge (torus) o Thin cranial bones o Low cranial vault (or forehead) o A non-pentagonal shaped head from the back (i.e. no more flare of skull) o Decrease in both size of molars and robusticity of cranium o Trend towards a greater cranial capacity Note: The Middle Palaeolithic  Was the cultural/”technological” period  Europe, Western Asia and the Middle East  Called the “Middle Old Stone Age” o Included the Mousterian Stone Age o Was considered to be the post-acheulean stone tool industry o E.g- When flakes taken off= refined to become a projectile point o Note: Core Prepare Technique- Kapthurin, Kenya Habitation  Caves and rock overhangs = common shelter  Open Air sites- literally open- in Terra Amata (France)- 400,000 ya  Burial= consistent disposal of the dead (seen in Sima des los Huesos, Spain)  Big game hunting seen in both Amborona and Torralba, Spain o Argument whether this is a product of H.erectus or Archaic H.sapiens Neanderthal  Is a distant cousin to H. sapiens in the evolutionary tree  Diverged from the linage leading to H. sapiens around 600,000 ya  Can be H. sapiens neaderthalensis or H.neanderthalensis o ONLY in EUROPE, WESTERN ASIA, MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA did archaic H.sapies become Neanderthals o Note: H.sapiens neanderthalensis is OUR species (i.e. called “Late archaic Homo sapiens)  Characteristics of H.neaderthalensis o Brutish and robust  Came from the discovery of skeleton in La Chapelle-aux-Saints  Cranium was long, low and had a very large capacity  Note: grave goods and “flexed” burial position o Often had osteoarthritis (stooped posture) and gum disease o Stocky trunk (smaller surface area [Bergmann] and short legs [Allen]) The Origins, Evol
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