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Anthro Ch 5 + 6 Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Hendrik Poinar

Genetics and Evolution (Continued…) Anthropology 1Z03- January 27, 2010 Lactose Intolerance  Close proximity to cattle (milk products)  “Secondary products revolution”- using animals parts and functions (i.e. cow hide)  Lactose is not well tolerated (esp. in East Asian’s and Native/Africans Americans) Microevolution  Changes in gene frequencies from one generations to the next  Note: “Deme” = a reproductive/breeding population (change over the short term)  Traced at a genetic level Macroevolution  Large scale evolution- when speciation events occur  Occurs over hundreds and thousands of years  Ancient DNA (aDNA)- used in some cases, if not decayed  Patterns, sizes and shapes looked at  E.g. Horse hooves How are species isolated?  If an environmental barrier is created  E.g. Ostrich (Africa) vs. Emu (Australia)  Isolation > speciation Why does extinction happen?  No sufficient variation (among individuals)  Greater adaptability fir a competitor species (subspecies) Human Genome Project  Mapping out various genes on various loci  Shows predisposition to certain in-life diseases  Genetic engineering o Genetically modified foods/organisms (GM/GMO) o Splicing DNA occurs where they place bits in other organisms (“best bits”) o Can make certain species hardier  This could possibly swamp the natural gene pool of certain organisms  Corporations have legal rights over certain species w/ particular genes o Cloning of sheep/humans (ethical issues?) HOMEWORK REVIEW--- Check last slide of PP!! Biology in the Present (Ch.5) Anthropology 1Z03- January 27, 2010 Biological Affinity (race)  Patterned phenotypic variation within a species (often skin color)  Breeding population vs. the whole population  There are landmarks for measuring midorbital or interorbital breadths o E.g. Inca bones in First nations skulls (not seen in normal skulls) o E.g.- Carabelli’s cusps- on first molar (European descent) Note: Time Periods:  Pre 1300s: Generally slow overland travel, variation not striking  1300s: Long distance travel (port to port), more striking human differences  1700s: Linnaeus and taxonomy, split humans into different groups o Johann Fredrich Blumenbach  Grouped different people via. There race  Races were “static” and did not change over time  Did not look at living populations Monogenists vs. Polygenists  Monogenists: o All humans descended from Adam and Eve o The was a varied due to environmental differences o No evolutionary change implied  Polygenist o Believed that not all humans descended from Adam and Eve o The different descendent groups were considered to be diff. species Biological Determinism  Various attributes an behaviors are governed by biological/genetic factors  Inaccurate association of certain biological traits such as skin color Franz Boas  Father of American Anthropology  Studied variation between recent immigrants to USA and offspring  Looking at measurements (head width and length)  Boas found change in offspring’s head shape (differences could be quantified)  Proved that these traits were not static (challenged Blumenbach)  Found 94% of genetic diversity occurs within a group (not between)  Therefore, very few of our traits pertain from where we are from Results indicate: o Individual variation in DNA profiles overwhelm inter-population differences o MORE physical, physiological and genetic diversity within a single geographic group (than between a race) o Racism: Socially-constructed categorization practice o Thus, race is an outdated practice Human Life History (Conception – Adulthood) --- Note the graph in the notes!  Prenatal (9 months in 3 trimesters)  Postnatal (birth to 20 years) – Body comes “together” at age 20  Adult (20 to senescence/death/”old-man”) Biology in the Present (Ch.5) – (Cont’d) Epiphyses (Bones)  Ends of bines fuse their shafts through adolescence (epiphysis union) fixing limb length  Look up: Epiphysis (head of bone), Epiphyseal, Metaphysis, diaphysis  Changes in average height over time: o Height altered via nutrition/sanitation/infectious disease o Doesn’t allow for population to reach the maximum height (i.e. Amazon/Brazil)  Harris Lines: o “Recovery/Harris Lines”- reflect recovery when bone building cells replenished o E.g.- During youth, when bones fuse back together if broken. o Underrepresentation of Harris lines if person reached adulthood o A person can catch up if re-nourished after growth period (meet genetic potential)  Osteoarthritis (Osteoporis) o Bone thinning/loss in older adults o Vertebral collapses can lead to kyphosis (hunchback) o Can result in bone on bone rubbing/bone on nerve rubbing o If bone density lost= vertebral/bone fractures  Ageing: o Auricular surface of ilium (can find age of human) o Pubic symphesis (in the pubic region) o Tooth Eruption (baby/deciduous teeth vs. permanent dendation)
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