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Classical Conditioning.docx

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Jurek Kolasa

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 5/13/2013 5:34:00 AM Learning – a permanent change in behavior knowledge capability or attitude Classical conditioning Kind of learning where people associate cues with events through contingencies Association of one stimulus and another Powerful effect on emotional responses, how we behave; etc. Stimulus 1 is presented, and then another stimulus was presented, there was a formed contingency between the two. Therefore the neutral stimulus = conditioned stimulus UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS Any stimulus or event OCCURS NATURALLY Naturally pairs with a response Punch in the arm UNCONDTIONED RESPONSE Response to the US OCCUR NATURALLY Punch in the arm  pain CONTIONED STIMULUS Was previously neutral and is paired with the US to produced a learned contingency. MUST BE LEARNED – sight of the lemon CONDOTIONED RESPONSE A response elicited by the contingency between the CS MUST BE LEARNED - puckering of the mouth, excess salivation GENERALIZATION GRADIENT Take the learned response and gets applied to things that are similar. DISCRIMINATION Get bitten by black Doberman Don’t get bitten by other dogs, ( have better experience with other dogs) Therefore generalization gradient decreases because you are only discriminating one kind of dog instead of all dogs. CS+ Predeicts presence of situation ex., dog biting you CS- Predicts the absence of situation ex., dog not biting you CAT EXAMPLE US - tuna UR – salivation in preparation for the tuna, feelings of happiness, or meowing CS – sound of opening the can of tuna CR – salivating for the tuna, or meowing, feelings of happiness. However if I open a jar, she wont go crazy and start meowing, being happy or salivating THIS IS DISCRIMINATION FACTORS INFLUENCING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1. pairing of the CS AND UCS 2. 2. Intensity – something bland tasting, or more pleasurable 3. reliability – how often does the CS pair with UCS the more, the better 4. temporal relationship – ideal timing when you present the ideal stimulus (1 sec. or less) 1 sec. before food comes, will you ring the bell. Therefore easier to learn contingency. INSTRUMENTAL/OPERANT CONDITIONING 5/13/2013 5:34:00 AM CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Contingency formed between stimulus 1 and stimulus 2 Unconscious and involuntary behavior Example, food to a dog and a previously neutral sound ( the bell) and then presented food immediately so they learned this contingency INSTRUMENTAL/OPERANT CONDITIONING Behavior and its consequence , something that follows a behavior Responses that are conscious and are voluntary When you study hard for a test and do well, you are most likely to study hard for other tests too 4 TYPES OF REINFORCERS TO INCREASE PRESENCE OF BEHAVIOUR Presentation of a positive reinforcer AKA reward training   get ice cream after you get a good grade Removal of a negative reinforcer AKA escape training   not having to mow the lawn every week if you bring home a good grade TO DECREASE PRESENCE OF BEHAVIOUR Presentation of a negative reinforcer AKA punishment training   make them mow the lawn everyday for bringing home a bad grade Removal of a positive reinforcer aka omission training   giving a time out, removing the pleasant stimuli SHAPING 1. Autoshaping Development of an instrumentally conditioned response that occurs in the absence of direct training Ex. pigeons pecking in cage to get food, eventually learn BY THEMSELVES that the disc releases food pellets 2. Shaping by successive approximation involves reinforcing small steps toward a desired behavior SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT 1. continuous reinforcement - reinforced every trial - every time they touch their ear, bring home an A+, etc. 2. partial reinforcement RATIO fixed ratio-EX. Get a gold star after every 2 chapters you read variable ratio-EX. approx. every time you get an A+ do you go out for ice cream INTERVAL fixed interval-EX. every week that it happens or after one week we will reinforce the behavior. Eg. a course that has a quiz every 3 weeks, then going to be reinforced for your studying behavior, and after that period of 3 weeks, it automatically happens. Eg. Every 2 weeks you get an allowance if you do your ch
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