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Chapter 19-37

ANTHROP 1AA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 19-37: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Gender Equality, Double Burden


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Tristan Carter
Chapter
19-37

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ANTHRO 1AA3 Wednesday September 21st, 2015
Tristan Carter
7pm-10pm
Week Three: Sex and Gender
Sex and Gender
Gender: refers to the roles that people perform in their households and communities and the
values and attitudes that people have regarding men and women (cultural category) – women
and men are products of their cultures definitions of how females and males should act
Sex: biological category – females and males are born
Gender Identity: how people internalize and enact those attitudes and expectations that are
associated with their gender category
Gender Construct: the set of cultural assumptions about gender roles and values and the
relations between the genders that people learn as members of their societies (culturally
constructed)
Evolutionary Perspectives:
The significant contrast in size and shape of pelvis, a critical factor in human evolution,
first appeared about 2 million years ago
Males are assumed to have been the primary hunters, and therefore created the first
known tools and weapons which differentiate us from other primates
Males shaped human culture, supplying women and children with necessary resources
“man the hunter” was the key to human development that differentiates us from other
primates
The Cultural Construction of Gender Identity
Gender as a social or cultural construct is a primary aspect of one’s personal and social
identity
Cultural Constructs: are models of behaviour and attitudes that a particular culture
transmits to its members
Most cultures use two different sets of names, one appropriate for females and one for
males
One universal expression of gender identity is the signaling of gender difference by
bodily adornments and comportment
Transvestitism = to look and act like someone of the opposite gender
Gender and Sexuality
Sexual feelings and practices are shaped by culture
Many societies select appropriate ages to begin sexual relations (America =16)
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ANTHRO 1AA3 Wednesday September 21st, 2015
Tristan Carter
7pm-10pm
It is considered normal and natural in many cultures that unmarried people engage in
sex
In Islamic countries, adultery is a capital offense for both partners, in others only the
woman is singled out
Gender and Homosexuality
Attitudes about homosexuality are a further reflection of cultural learning
Many nations dominated politically by religious thinking have laws that criminalize
homosexuality and institute policies that discriminate against homosexuality
Case Study – Two-Spirits: A Third Gender
One of the consistent features of “third gender” tradition was that members wore
clothing and hairstyles associated with their chosen social role
Female two-spirits may marry and have sexual relations with women, and vice versa for
male two spirits
They were highly desirable mates due to their prosperity, productive skills, and spiritual
knowledge
Many native cultures in North America recognize a third gender category
Review
Gender, cultural constructs that refer to the roles people perform in their households
and communities, differs from sex, which is a biological category
Gender identity is expressed in clothing, makeup, personal names, speech, non-verbal
communications, economic roles and how people are enculturated into appropriate
behaviours for men and women
Gender Constructs also include third gender roles, such as two-spirits and berdaches
Gender Roles and Relations
Gender roles: constellation of behaviours that are culturally associated with each
gender
Gender relations: consist of interactions between men and women, which may reflect
differences in the relative status, prestige, and power of women and men
There are no known examples of matriarchal societies in which women have exclusive
power
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