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Chapter 3

ANTHROP 1AB3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Allele Frequency, Egalitarianism, Mutation


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AB3
Professor
Antonio Sorge
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3: Race and Ethnicity
1
Chapter 3: Race and Ethnicity
Social Stratification: Class, Ethnicity, and Racism (pg. 81)
Modern industrial and post-industrial societies like our own are socially stratified
Anthropologists argue that egalitarian societies (people are equal) exists where
social groups (Ex. Families) have the same the rights and advantages
Egalitarianism characterized most of human history
Physical features such as skin colour can promote racism and beliefs that some
racial groups are inferior to others.
Stratification can consists of economic resources, other benefits such as prestige
and power
Social stratification involves the status, duties and responsibilities of ones self
o The lower the social stratigraphy the more difficult it is, and the more
undesirable the duties and responsibility.
Variation in Degree of Social Inequality (pg. 81)
3 types of factors that people strive for in an society are:
1) Wealth or economic resources
2) Power
3) Prestige
Economic resources are things that are needed in cultures
o Ex. Land, tools, technological goods, money, etc.
Power having the ability to force people to do things. Power usually comes from
force, intimidation, and wealth/resources.
o People with more wealth/resources have more access to power
Prestige are people that are highly respected
Different social groups have unequal access to Economic resources, power, &
prestige:
o Egalitarian (equality) Societies
o Rank Societies
o Class societies
Types of Society
Economic
Resources
Power
Prestige
Egalitarian Society
No
No
No
Rank Society
No
No
Yes
Class Society
Yes
Yes
Yes

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Chapter 3: Race and Ethnicity
2
Egalitarian Societies (pg. 82)
Egalitarian society is people amongst that society are treated as equal. However it
doesn’t necessarily mean that all members of societies are the same. They will
differ in terms age, gender or abilities.
Everyone in this society is able to achieve prestige status, however everyone has
an equal access to economic resources or power. They are considered stratified.
Egalitarian society keeps inequality at a minimum level
Differences in individuals in society varies in age, gender and other abilities
In an egalitarian society, the number of demands of one person or persons can
become prestige
o Ex. A person is good at making clothing, if a lot of people likes that
person’s clothing line, then they will be viewed as a designer
Ex. Louis Vuitton, True Religion etc.
o In this case, society is NOT socially stratified
o Socially stratification means the inequality of people in wealth, power,
status
Equal access are status for people with the same ability/abilities
o Ex. Hunting, skilled artists etc.
Sharing such as economic resources amongst members of society regardless of
prestige
Rank Societies (pg. 83)
Ranking is a status that everyone has. Everyone can access to prestige status,
however everyone do not have equal access to economic resources or power. This
society is partially stratified
In ranked societies, higher ranked personnel (such as chiefs which are the head of
the village) are treated differently appose to the lower ranked people
o Ex. In respect to a chief, usually people of lower rank would lower their
heads while the chief is standing
o The chief would receive more food than the commoners
o The chief lacks power. He/she can not force people to do his/hers bidding
Class Societies (pg. 84)
In Class societies, there is about an equal opportunity to obtain economic
resources, power and prestige. They are more stratified than rank societies
This society is considered “open” because everyone in society has the chance to
moving from one class to another
Different classes have different opportunities
o Meaning not everyone in the society has a opportunity to obtain land,
money, and other economic resources
Ex. Think about the society we are living now. Not everyone can
become a nurse, DJ etc.

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Chapter 3: Race and Ethnicity
3
Class does not always have to be refer to economic factors
o Ex. Taste A certain genre of music may be viewed high class in one
country while another country may view that same genre as low class
Class depends on a variety of factors:
o Economics
o Social status
o Appearance
o Occupation
A fully stratified or class societies range from somewhat open to closed class
People born in a open class society will remain and marry within that same class
People in the same class are more comfortable with each other oppose to people
of different classes.
People of the same class most likely share similar taste and interest
o Ex. Guido’s share similarity oppose to gangsters
Open class societies that allows people to move up in class or down
Closed class societies prevents people from moving class and often people marry
people of the same class.
Degree of Openness (pg. 85)
Some class systems are more open than others
o It is easier in some societies to move up from one class to another
Degree of mobility is the change of an individual’s social class over time.
o It is very flexible. It is not fixed.
Ex. Being a regular person, then suddenly you become a famous
DJ
To measure the degree of mobility, social scientist measures the social class of an
individual’s parents.
o The degree on mobility can either cause an individual to move up or down
in class
Ex. Education, university education can make you go up in class in
society because a university education is highly recognized rather
than a high school diploma
o The degree of mobility is basically your reputation in society
In certain countries, individuals social class ranking, are predicted based on their
education
Degree of Inequality (pg. 85)
Degree of Inequality is the status of individuals in society that are not necessarily
equal
o Can vary over time
Degree of class mobility is not the same as degree of economic inequality
o Ex. Japan, Italy and Germany has less mobility than U.S but less
inequality
Change in degree of inequality sometimes appears to have economic causes
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