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Chapter 8

ANTHROP 1AB3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Yao Ming, Kobe Bryant, Walt Whitman Rostow


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AB3
Professor
Antonio Sorge
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8: Globalization
1
Chapter 8: Globalization
What is Globalization?
Anthropologist refer globalization as the changes due to:
o Technological advancements
o Industrializations
o Labour (migration)
Globalization continues to occur in today’s society
o Ex. McDonalds, Apple Computers etc.
Globalization may not always bring people to get, but may cause cultural and political
conflicts
o Ex. 9/11 incident
Globalization can be recognized by many aspects in our society such as:
o Schools
There are many students coming from different backgrounds
o Professional sports teams
They contain people with different backgrounds too
Ex. Yao Ming, Kobe Bryant
Technology is constantly advancing everyday
o Ex. By the time Apple release the newest iPhone, they probably already have the
next iPhone already on its way
In postindustrial societies, manufacturing industries has been replaced with high-tech
technology such as computers.
Multinational corporations are merging with larger companies to increase economic
efficiency and revenues
Anthropologist used three theories to study globalizations:
Modernization Theory
o Max Weber
Recognized that cultural values and beliefs influenced the development
of certain technology and economic conditions in society
Modernization of society has influenced, economic, historical,
sociological and anthropological interpretations
o Modernization model was used to understand globalization and Cold War
o Changes in value can be resulted by education and will result in erosion of
traditionalism
o According to W.W. Rostow, industrial society takes places through 5 ways
Traditional stage
Preserving values and attitude to economic and political
development
Culture-change stage
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Chapter 8: Globalization
2
Cultural and value changes
Takeoff Stage
Once traditionalism begin to weaken, there will be an increase in
investments and savings
Self-sustained growth stage
Members of society intensify economic progress through
industrial technology
High economic growth
This stage involves aiming for a high standard of living by mass
production and consumption of goods
The Cold War led to the classification of societies into three worlds:
o First World
Made up of industrial state along with capitalist economic system
Industries become developed first
o Second World
Made up of industrial state along with socialist economic system
o Third World
Pertains to the premodern agricultural states that maintain traditionalism
One criticism about modernization model is that the third world
countries failed to produce economic and technological development
Third World countries remain undeveloped
Underdeveloped countries has a low income for national products
Dependency Theory
This is a socioeconomic development model
It explains globalization and how inequality among societies differ such as rich
developed societies vs. poor underdeveloped societies
Industrialized capitalist countries take advantage of underdeveloped precaptialist
countries for cheap labour and raw materials
The expansion of manufacturing companies results an increase in demand for raw
materials for production of goods
Since underdeveloped countries offered cheap labour, industrialized societies are
increasing in profit because they are not paying that much to the workers
Underdeveloped countries began depending on developed countries
Imperialism is the increase in demand for cheap labour, raw materials, consumer goods
and markets
World-system Theory
World-system theory explains global trends
This model represents Modernization theory and Dependency theory
Immanuel Wallerstein developed this model
World-system model placed all the countries into three categories
o Core societies
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