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ANTHROP 2FF3 Chapter Notes -Archaic Humans, Homo Heidelbergensis, Big-Game Hunting


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 2FF3
Professor
Hendrik Poinar

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The Origins, Evolution & Dispersal of Modern People
Anthropology 1Z03- March 24th, 2010
Importance of identifying Modern humans via Binomial Nomenclature
Archaic Homo sapiens / Homo sapiens heidelbergensis
o Our species with subtle differences
o Skeletal and developmental/cognitive/linguistic differences
Homo heidelbergensis
o A species from us within the genus homo
o Some may have “speciated” and become modern Homo Sapiens
o Heidelbergensis was the branch point (to neaderthalensis/sapiens)
Archaic Homo sapiens / Homo sapiens heidelbergensis
Mainly found in Jinniushan, China
Had a mixture of older and newer traits
o Supraorbital Browridge (torus)
o Thin cranial bones
o Low cranial vault (or forehead)
o A non-pentagonal shaped head from the back (i.e. no more flare of skull)
o Decrease in both size of molars and robusticity of cranium
o Trend towards a greater cranial capacity
Note: The Middle Palaeolithic
Was the cultural/”technological” period
Europe, Western Asia and the Middle East
Called the “Middle Old Stone Age”
o Included the Mousterian Stone Age
o Was considered to be the post-acheulean stone tool industry
o E.g- When flakes taken off= refined to become a projectile point
o Note: Core Prepare Technique- Kapthurin, Kenya
Habitation
Caves and rock overhangs = common shelter
Open Air sites- literally open- in Terra Amata (France)- 400,000 ya
Burial= consistent disposal of the dead (seen in Sima des los Huesos, Spain)
Big game hunting seen in both Amborona and Torralba, Spain
o Argument whether this is a product of H.erectus or Archaic H.sapiens
Neanderthal
Is a distant cousin to H. sapiens in the evolutionary tree
Diverged from the linage leading to H. sapiens around 600,000 ya
Can be H. sapiens neaderthalensis or H.neanderthalensis
o ONLY in EUROPE, WESTERN ASIA, MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA did archaic
H.sapies become Neanderthals
o Note: H.sapiens neanderthalensis is OUR species (i.e. called “Late archaic
Homo sapiens)
Characteristics of H.neaderthalensis
o Brutish and robust
Came from the discovery of skeleton in La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Cranium was long, low and had a very large capacity
Note: grave goods and “flexed” burial position
o Often had osteoarthritis (stooped posture) and gum disease
o Stocky trunk (smaller surface area [Bergmann] and short legs [Allen])
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