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BIOLOGY 1A03 (168)
Chapter 5

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Gillian Goward

Structure Function  made of (CH O) where n refers to  Perform a variety functions in cell 2 n the number of carbon-hydrate o Energy Source: glucose is rapidly metabolized groups o Energy storage: starch and glycogen  contain carbonyl, several o Structural support: cellulose, chitin, cartilage and hyrodxyl and other functional peptidoglycan groups with several C-H bonds  Structure: form longs strands which allows to form  Carbohydrates based on sizes: H/peptide bonds between adjacent strands. These o Monomers called strands further criss - cross to form a tough sheets. monosaccharides --> one - Individual H bond is weak; but H+H+H bonds = sugar/simple sugars = e.g. strong sugars(see the table below)  Function: form fibres that give cells and organisms o Polymers called strength and elasticity oligosaccharides --> few -  Structure is resistant to decay because only a few sugars enzymes have active sites with correct geometry o Large polymers called and reactive group to break the beta 1,4 linkage polysaccharides o Transport of energy source: sucrose (plants), lactose  Simplest called (milk) disaccharides o Cell surface signals: cell communication and cell - cell  Polysasccharides: recognition starch, glycogen,  Glycoproteins: are protein bonded to cellulose, chitin and carbohydrates by covalent bonds (mostly to peptidoglycan oligosaccharides). These are key in cell- cell  Cellulose, chitin recognition and cell- cell signalling. and  Help to identify part of your body peptidoglycan  Immune system cells use it to distinguish are structural body cells from foreign cells. polysaccharides  Every diff. type of cell (such as muscle or that have a nerve cell) displays a different set of common glycoproteins on its surface. feature, that is  Identification info. Presented by these that they proteins allows for cell recognition and usually exist as communication sets of long, parallel strands that are linked to each other. This structure gives them ability to withstand tension and compression  How to monomers form polymers: o Monomers polymerize to form polymer called polysaccharides (a.k.a complex carbohydrates) o During polymerization, a condensation reaction occurs between 2 hydroxyl groups, resulting in a covalent bond called glycosidic linkages forms, that links monomers forming polymers Carbohy Structure Funct Significance Linkages drates ion + others Sugars Monosaccharides  Pro The vid Ribose Presen carbons (pento t in structu Linear (is rare form) Ring (most exist e se) RNA in res in this form, as ch monosac rings form in em Deoxyr Presen charides ical ibose t in are solutions) en DNA numbere Type 1 Differ in the position Alpha glucose erg d of carbonyl group y in Glucos Presen consecuti cell e t in vely, s (hexos starch, starting e) cellulo  Fur se, with the nis end that Hydroxyl at c 1 is h glycog is nearest so en to below the ring me Used carbonyl by our of group the cells Type 2 Differ in the position Beta glucose mo and is of hydroxyl group lec in our bloods ula r tream bui ldi Galact Presen ng ose t in blo cartila cks ge. req Galato They are isomers but Hydroxyl at c1 is uir not optical. There are above the ring se to total 16 distinct ed be for used structures with the as a molecular formula syn source C6H12O6 present. the of sis energy of has to lar be first ger conver , ted mo into re glucos co e via mp an lex enzym co e mp catalyz ou ed nd reactio s n Disacch Polysaccharides  Ma Lactose related  Maltos arides lto conditions: e has  Alpha glucose + alpha glucose = maltose se Lactose alpha = Intolerance 1,4 pre and linkage sen Galactosemia  Lactos t in LACTOSE e has be INTOLERANCE: beta er, Occurs in 1,4 sw adults that do linkage eet not produce (glucos  Beta galactose + Beta Glucose = lactose (In this pot sufficient e is ato amount of flipped glucose has to be inverted to accommodate the , in lactase = an to bond) ger enzyme which accom mi splits lactose modat nat into glucose e this) ing and galactose. see Pattern, ds intolerance  Fru starts after  cto infancy, has se been observed = in cultures pre lacking cow`s sen milk in their  Glucose + fructose = sucrose t in diet. ho Symptoms: ne include y, bloating, ket abdominal ch pain, and up diarrhea. This an condition is an d adaption to po environment p lacking milk.  Suc Test: breath ros and acidity e= desth eas  GALACTOSEMI ier A: occurs the when someone n lacks the reg enzyme that ula converts r galactose into sug glucose. ars Problems: risk be of mental cau retardation or se death, kidney of or liver failure, its develop fin cataracts and e can lead to gra brain damage if ins left untreated.  Lac Solution: take tos pill lactaid and e = avoid dairy pre products at all
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