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Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5 - Biology 1A03

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1A03
Professor
Lovaye Kajiura

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CHAPTER 5: CARBOHYDRATES Types of macromolecules: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Nucleic acid 4. Lipids Carbohydrates are made of monomers called monosaccharides (one sugar), small polymers called oligosaccharides (a few sugars), and large polymers called polysaccharides. Most have the formula (CH 2) n SUGARS Sugars provide chemical energy in cells and furnish some of the building blocks required for the synthesis of larger, more complex compounds Monosaccharides:  Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, are a single sugar with a chain of carbons, each with an attached hydroxyl group and a single carbonyl group. o If the carbonyl is found at the end of the chain, it’s an aldehyde sugar – an aldose – and if in between the chain, it’s a ketone sugar – a ketose o The number of carbons varies and is numbered starting from the end closest to the carbonyl o Also vary due to arrangement of atoms – i.e. arrangement of the hydroxyl group o Sugars usually exist in ring structures – the oxygen of the carbonyl group attaches to the last hydroxyl group on the chain o  Alpha glucose: OH group attached to first carbon is on the bottom  Beta glucose: OH group attached to first carbon is on the top POLYSACCHARIDES  Polysaccharides - polymers of “monosaccharides”  Disaccharides –polymers consisting of two monosaccharides o Sucrose: glucose-fructose o Lactose: galactose-glucose o Maltose: glucose-glucose  Polymerize through a condensation reaction between two hydroxyl groups resulting in covalent bond – called a “glycosidic linkage.” o Linkages are analogous to the peptide bond of proteins and the phosphodiester bonds of nucleic acid o They have no specific location because monosaccharides contain minimum two hydroxyl groups; so the geometry and location differs  Most common polysaccharides: o Energy storage:  starch, glycogen o Structural support:  cellulose, chitin and peptidoglycan ENERGY STORAGE POLYSACCHARIDES STARCH  Energy storage in plant cells  Alpha glucose polymer with alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkages  Coiled shape: o Amylose: unbranched helix o Amylopectin: branched helix; branches occur every 30 monomers; branches attached with alpha-1,6-linkages GLYCOGEN  Energy storage in animal cells  Alpha glucose polymer with alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages  Highly branches helices; branches every 10 monomers with alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkages STRUCTURAL POLYSACCHARIDES Exist as sets of long strands linked to each other; links provides ability to withstand forces that push/pull on them. Beta-1,4-linkages provide CELLULOSE  Structural support in cell walls of plants, algae  Beta glucose monomers with beta-1,4-linkages forming cellulose stands  Adjacent strands are joined by hydrogen bonds  Glucose monomers are “flipped” relative to adjacent monomer (“flip flop orientation”); this increases stability of the strands by making it possible for multiple hydrogen bonds to form between adjacent stands  Most abundant organic compound on Earth  Also a dietary fibre helping with digestion by absorbing water and adding bulk to feces; aids in movement of feces through intestine CHITIN  Stiffens cell walls of fungi, algae, and the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects  N-acetyl gluc
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