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BIOLOGY 1A03 (168)
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Chapter 20

Textbook and Class Notes Collaborated - Unit 3 - Chapter 20 Bio 1A03

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Xudong Zhu

Bio 1A03 Unit ThreeGene Structure and Expression Chapter 20GenomicsKey ConceptsOnce a genome has been completely sequenced researchers use a variety of techniques to identify which sequence code for products and which act as regulatorsIn bacteria and archae the number of genes in a species is positively correlated with that species metabolic capabilitiesGene transfer between species is commonIn eukaryotes genomes are dominated by repetitive sequences that have little to no effect on the fitness of the organismData from genome sequencing projects are being used to develop new drugs and vaccines and to search for alleles associated with inherited diseasesIntroductionGenomethe complete DNA sequence of an organism The human genome sequence was published in February 2001 as part of the Human Genome ProjectGenomicsthe scientific effort t sequence interpret and compare whole genomesGenomics provide a list of the genes present in an organismFunctional genomicslooks at when those genes are expressed and how their products interact201 WholeGenome SequencingImproved automation has increased the speed and reduced the cost of DNA sequencingThe primary international repositories for DNA sequence data now contain over 145 billion nucleotidesWith about 3 billion nucleotides humans have the largest haploid genome sequence to dateThe size of the database increases by about 20 every yearHow Are Complete Genomes SequencedWhole Genome Shotgun Sequencing Approachthe genome is broken up into a set of overlapping fragments that are sequenced and these sequences are then put in order o Used by most genome sequencing projects o The genome is broken up into fragments of 160 kb by sonication and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome BAC libraries are created by inserting them into a different E coli cellBAC Librarya genomic library a set of all the DNA sequences in a particular genome split into small segments and inserted into a cloning vector o Each BAC is broken up into smaller over lapping fragments of 1kb that are cloned into a plasmid o Plasmids are then inserted into E coli cells are replicated producing shotgun clones o The fragments from these clones are then sequenced and the sequences are put in order
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