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Chapter 1

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Jon Stone

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Chapter 1 Biology and the Tree of Life Key Concepts 1) Biological science founded on 2 theories a. Cell Theory – all organisms are made up of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells b. Evolution through Natural Selection – species change throughout time because of variance in heritable traits, causing some individuals with favorable hereditable traits to produce more offspring 2) Phylogenic tree is a graphical representation of evolutionary relationships among species a. Relationships are estimated by analyzing differences and similarities in traits (you can tell which species is closer in terms of evolution by variances in certain traits) 3) Biologists ask questions, generate an hypothesis to answer the question, make a prediction, and design a experiment to test the prediction Theory – an explanation for a very general class of phenomenal (explanation for why something occurs) - Theories contain 2 parts, o The first describes a pattern in the natural world o The Second, explains the mechanism responsible for creating the pattern 1.1 The Cell Theory - 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope (30x) to examine cork structure - Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, developed a more powerful microscope o Inspected pond water, and made observation of paramecium Are all Organisms made up of cells? - All organisms are made up of cells - Cell: highly org
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