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Chapter 55

BIOLOGY 1M03 Chapter 55: bio 55

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McMaster University
Ben Evans

3 main types of diversity are: 1. Genetic (number of relative frequency of all alleles present in the species 2. Species 3. Ecosystem (capturing the array of biotic communities in the region along with the variation in the physical conditions present) recently efforts to cataloging diversity have been boosted by two technical breakthroughs: 1. the ability to sequence the entire genome of multiple members of the same species 2. research protocol called environmental sequencing species diversity is based on the variety of species on earth so it is measured by quantifying the number and relative frequency of species in a particular region barcoding is used to identify distinct species taxonomic diversity is important because some lineages on the tree of life are extremely species rich ecosystem diversity is more difficult to define than genetic diversity or species diversity however because ecosystems do not have sharp boundaries three types of diversities are interconnected and diversity is dynamic mutations can create new alleles which increase genetic diversity natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow may eliminate certain alleles or change their frequency changes in abiotic environment can also influence diversity there are approximately 1.5 million species catalog to date however it is not nearly as much as theyre actually present there is approximately 6 to 1 fungi planned ratio so assuming that it suggests that 1.65 million species of fungi exist taxon space species specific surveys are used to identify all the species present in the particular region you begin by estimating the number of insect species that live in the canopy of a single tropical tree to do this they use an insecticide to knock down insects from the top of a tree and then over 900 beetle species among the individuals that felt were identified the analysis says that there are more than 30 million insect species extrapolation techniques
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