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Chapter 13-14

BIOLOGY 1M03 Chapter 13-14: Chapter 13 and 14
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Ben Evans
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 13: HOMOSAPIENSANDEVOLUTIONOFMODERNHUMANBEHAVIOR Morphological Features of Modern Homo sapiens • Large, round skull with high forehead • Small face and teeth • Protruding chin • Less robust postcranial skeleton • Long limbs The Origin & Spread of Modern Humans • Homo sapiens • evolved in Africa ~100,000- 200,000 years ago • Small population left Africa ~60,000 yrs ago • Populated Australia and the Americas • Interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovan The Origin and Spread of Modern Humans: Genetics Genetic tree • Interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans • How do we know? Y chromosome ad mtDNA • Mutations accumulate over time: genetic trees • Map genes out to compare them Distribution • Provides knowledge of past, and future • Insert slide Diversity • Low genetic diversity o Indicated recent evolution o Descended from small population (12,000) Variation • Migrates, population growth, different frequency • Passage of individuals that change in the frequency • Less variation at the final Maps • The climate that affects the tundra • Out to areas that were warmer THE AFRICAN ARCHAELOGICAL RECORD FOR THE LATER PLEISTOCENE MODERN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Middle Stone Age (Modes 3–5) • Technological advances • Social organization: more humans create more hunting positions • Symbolic expression: higher levels of cultural expression (more evolved) Blades (Mode 4) • Useful for different prey items Microliths (Mode 5): Composite tools • spears • Throwing sticks • Hearted tools so it was easier to cut UPPER PALEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGY & CULTURE • Mode 4: blades • Tool diversity • Different raw materials • Variatio
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