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Chapter 1

Biology 1M03 Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Ben Evans
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology 1M03 Notes Chapter 1 What does it mean to say that something is alive? • Organism­ life form made up of one or more cells • Organisms five fundamental characteristics: o Energy o Cells o Information o Replication o Evolution The Cell Theory • Theory­ an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations • Cell­ a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin, flexible structure  called a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous  solution • Most scientific theories have two components o The first describes a pattern in the natural world o The second identifies a mechanism or process that is responsible for  creating that pattern • Cell theory­ all organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from pre­existing  cells • Hypothesis­ a proposed explanation • Prediction­ something that can be measured and that must be correct if a  hypothesis is valid The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection • Species are related by common ancestry • Evolution­ a change in the characteristics of a population over time • Natural selection occurs when two conditions are met o Individuals within a population vary in characteristics that are heritable­  meaning, traits that can be passed to offspring. A population is defined as a  group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the  same time o In a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help  individuals survive better or reproduce more than do other versions • If certain heritable traits lead to increased success in producing offspring, then  those traits become more common in the population over time • Artificial selection­ changes in populations that occur when humans select certain  individuals to produce the most offspring • Evolution occurs when heritable variation leads to differential success in  reproduction • Fitness­ means the ability of an individual to produce offspring. High fitness=  many surviving offspring • Adaptat
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