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Chapter 1

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McMaster University
Jon Stone

Chapter 1 Biology and the Tree of LifeThe Cell TheoryRobert Hooke used a crude microscope to examine the structure of cork bark tissue from an oak treeIn the cork he observed small porelike compartments that were invisible to the naked eye which came to be called cellsAnton van Leeuwenhoek developed a much more powerful microscope and made the first observations of singlecelled organisms like ParameciumToday a cell is defined as a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin flexible structure called a plasma membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solutionThe chemical reactions that sustain life take place inside cellsWhere cells come fromoMost scientific theories have two componentsThe first describes a pattern in the natural worldThe second identifies a mechanism or process that is responsible for creating that patternoThe complete cell theory isAll organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cellsoAt that time most scientists believed in spontaneous generation which was a hypothesis proposed explanationoThe allcellsfromcells hypothesis in contrast maintained that cells do not spring to life spontaneously but are produced only when preexisting cells grow and divideoLouis Pasteur set out to test the validity of the allcellsfromcells hypothesisoHe created two treatment groups a broth exposed to a source of preexisting cells and a broth that wasnt
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