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Chapter 12

Chapter 12- Oldowan Toolmakers and the Origin of Human Life History.docx

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Chapter 12 Oldowan Toolmakers and the Origin of Human Life HistoryThe Oldowan Toolmakersthe earliest identifiable stone tools are from about 25 myaat sites about 23 mya researchers found an extensive array of stone artifacts including flakes small sharp chips cores hammer stones and debris from manufacturingthese artifacts collectively are called Oldowan tool industry are very simpleoround stones that have been chippedoartifacts are quite variable in shape and sizeomade from different raw materialsotool industries are collections of tools that are found in a particular region and timewe do not know which hominin species were responsible for making toolsit is also possible that earliest stone tools were made by species that do not appear until later in the fossil recordstone tools are more durable than bones so the archaeological record is usually more complete than the fossil recordComplex Foraging Shapes Human Life Storyanthropologists divide foods acquired by forages into three types according to the amount of knowledge and skill required to obtain themothese are in order of increasing difficulty of acquisition collected food extracted foods and hunted foods1collected foods can be simply collected from the environment and eaten2extracted foods come from things that dont move but are protected in some waythese things must be processed before food can be eaten3hunted foods come from things that run away and thus must be caught or trappedmay also need to be extracted or processed before consumptionChimpHumansCollected9610Extracted430Hunted260humans depend on hardtolearn skills to acquire foodcontemporary foraging peoples depend on extracted and hunted foods to a much greater extent than chimpanzees dounlike other predators humans must learn a very diverse set of hunting skills1
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