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BIOLOGY 1M03 (199)
Chapter

Evolution by Natural Selection

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Susan A Dudley
Semester
Fall

Description
EvolutionbyNaturalSelectionKeyConceptsPopulationsandspeciesevolvemeaningthattheircharacteristicschangethroughtimeEvolutionmaybedefinedaschangesinallelefrequenciesovertimeoExceptionsexistsoMorethanmerelychangesinallelefrequenciesEvolutionbynaturalselectionoccurswhenindividualswithparticularallelessurviveorproducethemostoffspringinapopulationAdaptationatthemicroevolutionaryscaleisageneticallybasedtraitthatincreasesanindividualsabilitytosurviveandproduceoffspringinaparticularenvironmentEvolutionbynaturalselectionisnotprogressiveItdoesntchangethecharacteristicofanindividualitchangesthecharacteristicsofapopulationAnimalsdonotdothingsforthegoodofthespeciesbutmightbehavealtruisticallyunderparticularconditionsandnotalltraitsareadaptiveAlladaptationsareconstrainedbytradeoffsaswellasgeneticandhistoricfactorsScientifictheoriesareoftenmadefromanobservationaboutanaturalpatternandaproposedprocessthatsupportsitInthetheoryofevolutionbynaturalselectionCharlesDarwinandAlfredRusselWallacein1858madetheclaimthatevolutionhasoccurredthatspecieshavechangedthroughtimeTheyproposednaturalselectionasaprocesstoexplainthepatternofevolutionEvolutionbynaturalselectionhasbecomeoneofthebestsupportedandmostimportanttheoriesinthehistoryofscientificresearch241TheEvolutionofEvolutionaryThoughtTheGreekphilosopherPlatoclaimedthateveryorganismwasanexampleofaperfecttypecreatedbyGodandthatthesetypeswereunchangingTypologicalthinkinginvolvestheideathatspeciesareunchangingtypesandvariationwithinspeciesareunimportantAristotleorderedthesetypesoforganismsintoalinearschemecalledthegreatchainofbeingInthischainspecieswereorganizedintoasequencebasedonincreasingsizeandcomplexitywithhumansatthetopAristotleandtheGreatChainofBeingoTheseideasremainedpopularinreligiousandscientificthoughtinthe1700sSpeciesarefixedtypesSomespeciesaremorecomplexthanothers
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