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Chapter 1

Chapter 1- Introduction to Physiology.docx

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Graham R.Scott

Biology 2A03: Integrative Physiology of Animals Chapter 1: Introduction to Physiology Physiology - Physiology is the study of the functions of organisms - Human physiology: the study of how our bodies work - Pathophysiology: what happens when normal body function is disrupted - Systems approach - Organ system: collection of anatomical structures that work together to carry out a specific function Organization of the Body - Cells are the smallest living unit - Although each cell is independently capable of carrying out its own basic life processes, the various types of cells are specialized to perform different functions important to the operation of the body as a whole - All the cells depend on one another for their survival - Proper body function requires not only that each part be able to carry out its own function, but also that the parts be able to work together in a coordinated manner Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems - Cells and tissues: four major classes  Neurons:  Specialized to transmit information in the form of electrical signals  Possess branches that function to receive signals from or to transmit signals to other cells  Receive information from the outside environment and allow us to perceive the world through our senses  Relay signals to muscles, glands, and other organs  Process information  Muscle cells or muscle fibers:  Specialized to contract, thereby generating mechanical force and movement  Movements under voluntary control (skeletal muscle)  Not under voluntary control (cardiac muscle and smooth muscle)  Epithelial cells:  Found in tissues called epithelia which consists of a continuous, sheetlike layer of cells in combination with a thin underlying layer of noncellular material called a basement membrane  Layer may be one cell thick (simple) or several cells thick (stratified)  May vary in shape: short and flattened (squamous), regular square-shaped (cuboidal) or tall and oblong (columnar)  Found where body fluids must be kept separate from the external environment  Interior cavity of a hollow organ or vessel is generally referred to as the lumen  Certain epithelial cells are specialized to transport specific materials from one location to another  Epithelial cells can form glands  Exocrine glands: secrete a product into a duct leading to the external environment  Endocrine glands: secrete hormones into the bloodstream  Connective tissue cells: blood cells, bone cells, fat cells  Any structure whose primary function is to provide physical support for other structures  Consists of widely scattered cells embedded in a mass of noncellular material called the extracellular matrix, which contains a dense meshwork of proteins and other large molecules  Extracellular matrix consists of fibrous proteins elastin (which gives the tissue elasticity) and collagen (which gives the tissue the ability to resist stretching)  A collection of cells performing similar functions is referred to as a tissue: nervous tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue and connective tissue - Organs and organ systems:  Organs: when two or more tissues combine to make up structures that perform particular functions  Organs are organized into organ systems, collections of organs that work together to perform certain functions  Endocrine: provide communication between cells of the body through the release of hormones into the bloodstream  Nervous: provide communication between cells of the body through electrical signals and the release of neurotransmitters into small gaps between certain cells  Musculoskeletal: support the body; allow voluntary movement of the body; allow facial expression  Cardiovascular: transport molecules throughout the body in the bloodstream  Respiratory: bring oxygen into the body and eliminate carbon dioxide  Urinary: filter the blood to regulate acidity, blood volume, and ion concentrations; eliminate wastes  Gastrointestinal: break down food and absorb it into the body  Reproductive: generate offspring  Immune: defend the body against pathogens and abnormal cells  Integumentary: protects the body from the external environment The Body’s External Environment - Layer of epithelial tissue separates the external environment from the interior of the body - Includes the skin, the linings of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, and kidney tubules, which are continuous with the external environment - Barrier is continuous The Body’s Internal Environment - Most of the body’s cells are not able
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