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Chapter 1

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 2C03
Professor
Bhagwati Gupta
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Genetics Albinism in the Hopis - Albinism is caused by a defect in one of the enzymes required to produce melanin, the pigment that darkens our skin, hair, and eyes, - People with albinism don’t produce melanin and, consequently, have white hair, light skin, and no pigment in the irises of their eyes - Melanin protects the DNA of skin cells from the damaging effects of UV in sunlight, and melanin’s presence in the developing eye is essential for proper eyesight - Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait - Albinism is caused by defects in any one of several genes that control the synthesis and storage of melanin - Form of albinism found in the Hopis is oculocutaneous albinism type 2, due to a defect in the OCA2 gene on chromosome 15 - In most human groups, albinism is rare (1 in 20,000 persons), in Hopis 1 in 200 - Hopis value albinos in their culture 1.2Genetics Is Important to Us Individually, to Society, and to the Study of Biology - Genes are fundamental to who and what we are - Genetically engineered crops constitute a significant proportion of all the food produced worldwide - Pharmaceutical industry and medicine - The role of genetics in biology: all organisms use genetic systems that have a number of features in common  Evolution  Developmental biology  Taxonomy, ecology, and animal behaviour - Genetic diversity and evolution: all living organisms use a similar genetic system  Genome: set of genetic instructions encoded in nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)  Genetic variation is the foundation of evolutionary change - Divisions of genetics:  Transmission genetics: basic principles of heredity and how traits are passed from one generation to the next, with a focus on individual organisms.  Molecular genetics: chemical nature of the gene  Population genetics: genetic composition of groups of individual members of the same species and how that composition changes geographically and with time -
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