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Chromosomes and Cytogenetics.pdf

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Bridget O' Shaughnessy

MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC AND ETCLooking at chromosomes in the metaphase phase METAPHASE CHROMOSOME SPREADThe chromosomes condense further in metaphase These chromosomes are replicatedIn the metaphase spread the homologous chromosomes are all mixed up The chromosomes from the metaphase spread are arranged in pairs in order of decreasing size and length in what is called a KAROTYPE A karyotype is a standard arrangement of a photographed or imaged stained metaphase spread in which chromosome pairs are arranged in order of decreasing length The procedure for producing a chromosomes spread is to inhibit mitosis when the cell is in metaphase by using mitotic spindle inhibitors and then stain these chromosomesSPECTRAL KARYOTYPESKYSpectral karyotyping is a MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC technique used to visualize all the pairs of chromosomes in an organism in DIFFERENT COLOURS The chromosomes in the metaphase spread are stained by FLUORESCENTLYLABELLED PROBES or DYES that bind to specific regions on the chromosomes Thus different chromosomes have different spectral colours A common dye is GIEMSA the process of dying chromosomes with Giemsa is known as GBANDING This dye stains the banding pattern on the chromosomes thus allowing these banding patterns to be distinguished Spectral Karyotype allows for pairing of homologous chromosomes to be simpler because HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES have similar colours The spectral karyotype has been used to detect translocations of the bands It can be used to identify DNA damage and repair
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