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Chapter 5

BIOLOGY 1A03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Glycosidic Bond, Dietary Fiber, Covalent Bond

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Lovaye Kajiura

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Types of macromolecules:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Nucleic acid
4. Lipids
Carbohydrates are made of monomers called monosaccharides (one sugar), small polymers
called oligosaccharides (a few sugars), and large polymers called polysaccharides. Most have the
formula (CH2O)n
Sugars provide chemical energy in cells and furnish some of the building blocks required for the
synthesis of larger, more complex compounds
Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, are a single sugar with a chain of carbons, each with
an attached hydroxyl group and a single carbonyl group.
o If the carbonyl is found at the end of the chain, it’s an aldehyde sugar – an aldose
and if in between the chain, it’s a ketone sugar – a ketose
o The number of carbons varies and is numbered starting from the end closest to the
o Also vary due to arrangement of atoms i.e. arrangement of the hydroxyl group
o Sugars usually exist in ring structures the oxygen of the carbonyl group attaches
to the last hydroxyl group on the chain
Alpha glucose: OH group attached to first carbon is on the bottom
Beta glucose: OH group attached to first carbon is on the top
Polysaccharides - polymers of “monosaccharides”
Disaccharides polymers consisting of two monosaccharides
o Sucrose: glucose-fructose
o Lactose: galactose-glucose
o Maltose: glucose-glucose
Polymerize through a condensation reaction between two hydroxyl groups resulting in
covalent bond called a “glycosidic linkage.”
o Linkages are analogous to the peptide bond of proteins and the phosphodiester
bonds of nucleic acid
o They have no specific location because monosaccharides contain minimum two
hydroxyl groups; so the geometry and location differs
Most common polysaccharides:
o Energy storage:
starch, glycogen
o Structural support:
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