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Chapter 4

BIOLOGY 1M03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Orangutan

Course Code
Dr. Dushoff

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Tutorial 3: PTC Tasting and Bioinformatics
Chapter 55 Section 5: The Diversity of Modern Apes
Orangutan males are mostly solitary, while mothers live with their infants for a
few years
Orangutan males defend large territories that may include the territories of
several females and may fight viciously with nomadic male interlopers for access
to a sexually receptive female
Adult, sexually mature orangutans undergo a bimaturation process in which
some males stay at a small body size for 30 years or more, while other males
grow to a body size double that of an adult female, and develop large cheek
Small adult males are rarely attacked by large, dominant male whose territory
they inhabit
Small unflanged males and large flanged males have approximately equal
reproductive success
Orangutans feed mostly on fruit (two thirds of their diet), young leaves, shoots,
bark, honey, insects and bird eggs
o Fruit availability is highly variable in the rain forests where orangutans live,
where orangutans live, where many species of fruit-bearing trees
synchronously produce huge amounts of fruit between long intervals of
low fruit production
o While searching for and feeding on fruit scattered over a large area, a
dominant male orangutan is not able to effectively guard all females in is
o Being a sneaky little male seems to be a successful alternate strategy for
orangutan reproductive success
Gorillas live in groups consisting of several females, their infants, and one or
sometimes a few dominant males
The dominant male called the silverback restrickts the mating behavior of the
other males in his social group
Males compete with eachother for dominance in a group
Their diet consists primarily of leaves, stems, and shoots; they also eat fruits,
sometimes insects and ants
Gorillas are more terrestrial than other non-human apes and knuckle-walk on
their fists
Our closest relatives are two species of chimpanzees: common chimpanzees
and bonobos
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