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BIOLOGY 2EE3 Chapter Notes -Organelle, Enzyme, Crystal Violet


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 2EE3
Professor
Turlough Finan

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Microbiology (Bio 2EE3) Textbook Notes
Chapter 1 (pg 2-32)
1.1
Microbiology: Is the study of microbes (Microorganism and Viruses)
What Defines life?
Metabolism, Growth, reproduction, genetic variation, response to foreign stimuli
and homeostasis
Chemical Makeup of Cell:
Polypeptides: Are polymers of amino acid and are most abundant, are used as
enzymes and structural components of cells (50-55%)
Nucleic Acids: DNA is informational, RNA has many functions with majority
associated with the production of proteins ( DNA:2-5%, RNA: 15-20%)
Lipids: Hydrophobic molecules that are used as the foundation of the cell
membrane (10%)
Polysaccharides: Structural (chitin and cellulose) and Storage (starch and
glycogen) (6-7%)
Three domains of Life:
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):
DNA is heated causing it to denature or become single-stranded
After the DNA cools, primers anneal to complementary regions
DNA polymerase extends the DNA from the primers
1.2: Microbial Genetics
Endosymbiosis Theory: Chloroplasts and mitochondria were originally there own
distinct cell until a larger bacteria cell engulfed them through endocytosis and
now are in a symbiotic relationship
Progenote: The first living organism classified by Carl Woese, to store
information in genes not yet linked together on chromosomes
The ultimate source of genetic variation is mutation
Biosphere: Regions of the Earth that can support life
Chapter 2 (39- 71)
2.1 Morphology of Bacteria
Spherical= Coccus (Streptococcus Pyrogenes)
Spherical= Coccus (Streptococcus Pyrogenes)

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Rod= Bacillus (Bacillus Anthracis)
Curved Rod= Vibrio (Vibrio Cholera)
Spiral= Spirillum (Treponoma Pallidum)
Pleomorphic Bacteria: Highly Variable Shapes such as Mycoplasma
Mycelia: When Hyphae form three dimensional networks that can rise above the
substrate, penetrate down into soil or both
Trichomes contain a polysaccharide sheath coating the entire filament
Both of these structures provide intercellular signaling and exchange of nutrients
Epulopsicum Fishelsoni: A giant bacteria (700 nanometers) that has an usual way
of replication where the offspring arises from the parent
oAnother giant Bacteria is the Thiomargarita Namibiensis
2.2 Cytoplasm
Nucleoid
The Largest Single entity in the cytoplasm, a convoluted mass of DNA
No membrane surrounds this mass unlike Eukaryal cells
Topoisomerases are enzymes that encourage the chromosome to supercoil upon
itself in order to collapse it into a more compact mass
The nucleoid of E.Coli consists of 60% DNA, 30% RNA and 10% Protein
Inclusion Bodies may contain extra storage for caron, nitrogen or phosphorus
Magnetosomes: Are rare membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles that are used
for direction finding
2.3 The Bacterial Cytoskeleton
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