BIO 2F03 Notes -all chapters

79 views151 pages
8 Feb 2016
Department
Professor
Chapter One 2014-10-18 8:00 AM
!"#$%&'%()*+*,-.%
%
/*0('$%1&02'3$('$&4,%)*56($&$&*4%$"(*0-%
37#4%'(8(0#+%'6()&('%9'(%$"(%'#5(%0('*90)(%:;#)<0$"90=.%
3>"&'%&'%5*0(%$"#4%?9'$%#%'&56+(%@9('$&*4A%1()#9'(%9+$&5#$(+-%*4(%'6()&('%5*4*6*+&B('%$"(%0('*90)(%#42%
1()*5('%C(++%D(2A%C"&+(%$"(%*$"(0%&'%+(D$%'$#08&4,E%%
3F(%#4#+-B(2%!#01+(0'%'6()&('E%G&DD(0(4$%'6()&('%D((2%*4%2&DD(0(4$%6+#)('%*4%$"(%$0((%:5#0H(2%1-%-(++*C%&4%$"(%
$(I$1**H=E%>C*%'6()&('%*4%$*6%*8(0+#6%&4%$"(%0(,&*4%$"(-%9'(E%%
J(''*4'K%
LE G&8&'&*4%*D%0('*90)('%$#H('%6+#)(%#'%6*'$9+#$(2E%MD%'6()&('%9'(%$"(%'#5(%0('*90)(A%$"(-%C&++%1(%9'&4,%&$%&4%
2&DD(0(4$%C#-'%:M4%(I#56+(A%$"&'%&'%1-%2&DD(0(4)(%&4%$"(%0(,&*4%*4%$"(%$0((=%
NE 7*56($&$&*4%&'%0(29)(2E%:<'%+*4,%#'%$"(-%9'(%2&DD(0(4$%6#0$'%*D%$"(%$0((A%$"(-%2*%4*$%)*56($(=E%
OE <,,0(''&*43%*4(%*D%5()"#4&'5'%%
%
%
!"#$%C*9+2%"#66(4%&D%*4+-%*4(%'6()&('%C#'%60('(4$.%
!"(4%$"(%-(++*C%0956(2%C#01+(0%&'%1-%&$'(+DA%#42%$"(%*4(%$"#$%&'%D*0#,&4,%&4%$"(%#0(#%#1*8(%*4%$"(%$0((%&'%
#1'(4$A%$"(4%$"(%-(++*C%0956(2%C#01+(0%5*8('%96%*4%$"(%$0((E%%
PQ0*8('%$"#$%)*56($&$&*4%&'%0('6*4'&1+(%D*0%6#0$&$&*4&4,%*D%0('*90)('E%>"&'%'($%*D%*1'(08#$&*4%C&$"%$"(%+#'$%
:*4%!"#$%&'%R)*+*,-%'+&2(=A%&'%'9DD&)&(4$%&4%942(0'$#42&4,E%
Q*&4$'K%
LE%G&8&'&*4%*D%0('*90)('%)(#'('%#'%(I6()$(2%
NE%>"(%0(5#&4&4,%'6()&('%&'%0(+(#'(2%D0*5%)*56($&$&*4%:>"(%0(5#&4&4,%'6()&('%(I6#42'=E%/*0%(I#56+(A%
'*5($&5('%#%'6()&('%&'%0(5*8(2%1()#9'(%&$%&'%#%6('$A%19$%$"(%0(5#&4&4,%'6()&('%(I6#42'%#42%#+'*%1()*5('%
#%6('$E%
OE%M$'%"#1&$#$%(I6#42'%#42%#1942#4)(%)#4%,0*CE%%
%
S9$0&(4$%192,($'%#42%+#0,(%')#+(%()*+*,-%
;#4-%$"&4,'%"#66(4%&4%$"(%10#4)"('%
3Q"*$*'-4$"('&'A%49$0&(4$%)#6$90(%*0%0(+(#'(A%*$"(0%*0,#4&'5'%:&4)+92&4,%6+#4$'K%(6&6"-$('=E%%
3T*5($&5('%0('(#0)"(0'%0(@9&0('%'*5(%0&'H'%*0%D*)9'('%*4%+#0,(%')#+(%60*)(''('%:(E,%F911#02%U0**H%
:4(I$==E%%
%
RI#56+(%*D%T$92&('V%
F911#02%U0**H%(I6(0&5(4$#+%C#$(0'"(2%&4%S(C%F#5'"&0(%:J&H(4'%#42%U*05#4=E%%
37*56#0&'*4%*D%$C*%'$0(#5'%:*4(%&4%(#)"%8#++(-=E%U#'&)#++-A%$"(-%)9$%&$%D0*5%*4(%0&2,(%$*%#4*$"(0%'*%$"#$%#++%
$"(%0#&4%&'%)#9,"$%1-%$"(%'$0(#5E%M4%$"(%(42A%$"(-%C*9+2%69$%#%,#,(%*0%'(8(0#+%,#,('%#42%)*++()$%C#$(0%
'#56+('%$*%'((%C"&)"%)"(5&)#+'%D+*C%C&$"%$"#$%C#$(0%&4%$"(%'$0(#5E%>"(-%D*942%#D$(0%)9$$&4,%$0(('A%C#$(0%
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 151 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
)"(5&'$0-%2&24W$%)"#4,(E%T922(4+-%$"*9,"A%#D$(0%#%-(#0A%$"(0(W'%$0(5(42*9'%#5*94$%*D%49$0&(4$'%$"#$%
#66(#0%&4%$"(%C#$(0E%U#'&)#++-A%#D$(0%$"(%D*0('$%C#'%)9$A%49$0&(4$'%'$&++%0(5#&4(2%#'%*0,#4&)%5#''E%U(D*0(A%
C"(4(8(0%#%5*+()9+(%)*4$#&4&4,%#%49$0&(4$%C#'%6&)H(2%96%1-%8(,($#$&*4%#42%20*66(2%C&$"%+(#8('%$*%$"(%
'*&+%#42%0(+(#'(2%$*%$"(%'*&+A%&4'$(#2%*D%$0#8(++&4,%$"0*9,"%$"(%'$0(#5A%&$%C#'%6&)H(2%96%1-%+&8&4,%$"&4,'E%M$%
C#'%)*4$&49*9'+-%&4)*06*0#$(2%#42%0(+(#'(2%&4%+&8&4,%$"&4,'%#42%4*$%+*'$E%!"(4%-*9%H&++%8(,($#$&*4A%
0($904&4,%$"(%49$0&(4$'%&'%8(0-%2&DD&)9+$E%T*5(%*D%$"(5%C&++%)*5(%1#)HA%19$%&$%C&++%$#H(%#%+*4,%$&5(%$"0*9,"%
4&$0*,(4%D&I#$&*4%#42%0*)H'E%
%
RI6(0&5(4$#+%J#H(%<0(#%*0%RJ<%:!E%X4$#0&*K%G#8&2%T)"&42+(0=%
3M48('$&,#$&4,%$"(%#@9#$&)%(DD()$'%*D%8#0&*9'%'$0(''('%*4%$"(%+#H(%#42%$"(&0%)#$)"5(4$'%
3M48*+8(2%(9$0*6"&)#$&*4%C"&)"%&'%$"(%()*'-'$(5%0('6*4'(%$*%$"(%#22&$&*4%*D%#4%#0$&D&)&#+%*0%4#$90#+%
'91'$#4)(%$"0*9,"%D(0$&+&B(0'%*0%'(C#,(%$*%#4%#@9#$&)%'-'$(5E%M4%$"&'%)#'(A%6"*'6"*0*9'%C#'%#22(2%
$*%+#H('E%
3<$%$"(%1*$$*5%*D%$"(%+#H(A%'(2&5(4$'%#0(%4&)(+-%*0,#4&B(2E%Y*9%)#4%20*6%#%2(8&)(%)#++(2%'(2&5(4$%
)*0(%#42%-*9%)#4%'((%$"(%10*C4%1#0%*4%$"(%0&,"$%/&,%LEZ%)*4$#&4&4,%*0,#4&)%5#$(0&#+%#42%5&4(0#+'E%MD%
-*9%#4#+-B(%$"*'(%5#$(0&#+'%942(0%5&)0*')*6(A%-*9%)#4%D&42%$"&4,'%$"#$%C(0(%60('(08(2%*8(0%$"(%
-(#0'E%%
3M2(4$&D-%6*++(4%,0#&4%:94&@9(%D*0%(#)"%'6()&('%*D%6+#4$'=E%%
%
X1'(08#$*4'%:*D%/&,%LEZ=K%
T609)('%,0*C%&4%$"(%S*0$"E%T*%$"#$%5(#4'%C"(4%$"(%+#H(%'$#0$(2A%)+&5#$(%C#'%)**+%#42%4*C%&$%,*$%C#05(0E%
!(%)#4%9'(%*90%H4*C+(2,(%*D%$"(%$(56(0#$90(%$"#$%T609)('%,0*C%&4%$*%2($(05&4(%C"#$%$"(%)+&5#$(%C#'%
C"(4%$"(-%C(0(%#1942#4$%#42%"*C%59)"%&$%"#'%)"#4,(2%94$&+%4*CE%
%
;#H&4,%'(4'(%*D%5#0&4(%#+,#(%
3[(5*$(%'(4'&4,%8&#%'#$(++&$('%*DD(0'%#%6((H%#$%$-6('%#42%@9#4$&$-%*D%)"+*0*6"-++%&4%$"(%*)(#4E%Y*94,%D*0('$'%
#42%*+2%D*0('$'%C&++%"#8(%2&DD(0(4$%)*+*90'E%%
3>"('(%2#$#%#++*C%('$&5#$&4,%5#0&4(%60*29)$&8&$-E%%
RI#56+(K%
>0(8*0%Q+#$$%D0*5%G(6$%/&'"(0(&('%#42%X)(#4'%:SETE=%
3S*460*29)$&8(%#0(#'%#0(%1+9(A%0(2%#42%-(++*C%5(#4'%60*29)$&8(E%
3;*'$%60*29)$&8(%#0(#'%*D%*)(#4'%#0(%)+*'(%$*%+#42A%$"&'%&'%$09(%#++%*8(0%$"(%C*0+2E%%
%
S#$90(%#42%')*6(%*D%()*+*,-%
[#4,(%*D%$(56(0#$(%#42%'6#$&#+%')#+('%
3\0#''"*66(0'%)"#4,(%)*+*0%&4%0('6*4'(%$*%(48&0*45(4$#+%60(''90('E%%
3<%"*'$%*D%&''9('K%(4(0,-%*D%&42&8&29#+'A%49$0&(4$%)-)+&4,A%+*4,%$(05%)"#4,('%&4%$"(%(48&0*45(4$%%
3<660*#)"('K%/0*5%(I6(0&5(4$%$*%*1'(08#$&*4A%D0*5%0()*4'$09)$&*4%*D%$"(%6#'$%$*%0(5*$(2%'(4'&4,%#42%
5*2(+&4,%%
%
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 151 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
%
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 151 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class