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Chapter 11

Textbook Chapter 11, 26, 27 ORGO - Chem 1AA3

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Pippa Lock

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Chapter 11 2627Organic Chemistry Evolution of the Field Organic Chemistry is importanto So that we can understand how we interact withother organisms food nutrients infectionsOur environment aromas pollutantsdrugsourselves metabolism growth immunity cancer o To understand how things are made what theyre made of and how they react with each other Organic Chemistry Components 1 Structurethe connectivity and 3D nature of compounds 2 Theorystructure and reactivity in terms of atoms and the electrons that bind them together 3 Synthesishow to design and make new moleculesOrganic CompoundsWhy give carbon its own field o 98 of all known chemicals are organicInorganic chemistrythe chemistry of everything elseNearly all pharmaceuticals are organic AlkanesHydrocarbonsthe simplest organic compounds CH 22n2 Saturated all bonding electrons used to make singe bondsMethane various representations Ethane CH 26oWedged linebond is coming forward out of the plane oDashed linebond is going backward behind the plane oStraight linebond and attached group is the plane Propane C H 38How To Draw Organic Molecules 1 Draw molecules in a ZigZag shape versus linear structures2 Assume there are H atoms attached to each carbon in a ZigZag structure giving valences of 43 For reactions draw out the functional groups in detail and include lone pairs electrons Advice and HintsBe neatmessy structures lead to mistakesCount carbon atomsCount substituents on carbon atoms including implied H atomsNever more than four bonds to carbonStructural DiversityIsomers Cycloalkanes Concept Check SkeletalStructural IsomerismSkeletal or structural isomers have o The same molecular formula but different connectivity o Different physical propertiesConstitutional Isomers Structural Isomerssame molecular formula but different bond connectivitys and thus different skeletal structures o Skeletal Concept Checkdraw all o Positionalstructural isomers of CH 512o FunctionalStereoisomersthe numbers and types of atoms and bonds in molecules are the same but certain atoms are oriented differently in space o Cis and trans isomerism o Optical isomerism
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