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CHEM 1AA3 (18)

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Jeff Landry

Organic Soil Materials  O Horizons  Organic horizon of mineral soils Osmotic potential  Portion of the total (soil water potential) due to the presence of solutes in soil water  Generally will be negative Osmosis  Outwash Plain  Deposit of coarse textured materials (ex. Sand and gravels) left by streams of melt water flowing from receding glaciers Parent Material  Unconsolidated and more or less chemically weathered mineral or inorganic matter from which the solum of soils is developed by pedogenic processes Particle Density  Mass per unit volume of the soil particles  In technical work usually expressed as metric tonnes per cubic meter (Mg/m^3) or grams per cubic cm (g/cm^3) Pedology  Science that deals with the formation, morhpholoy and classification of soil bodies as landscape components Pedosphere  Conceptual zone within the ecosystem consisting of soil bodies or directly influenced by them  Zone or sphere of activity in which mineral, water, air and biological components come together to form soils  Usage is parallel to that of atmosphere or biosphere Pedoturbation  Physical disturbance and mizing of soil horizons by such forces as burrowing animals (ex. Faunal pedoturbation) or frost churning (cryoturbation) Penetrometer  Instrument consisting of a rod with a cone shaped tip and a means of measuring the force required to push the rod into a specified increment of soil Percolation, soil water  Downward movement of water through soil  Especially downward flow of water in saturated or nearly saturated soil at hydraulic gradients of the order of 1.0 or less Percolation Test  Measurement of the rate of percolation of water in a soil profile  Usually to determine the suitability of the soil for sure as a septic tank draining field pH, soil  Negative logarithm or the hydrogen ion activity (concentration) of a soil  Degree of acidity (alkalinity) of a soil as determined by means of a glass or other suitable electrode or indicator at a specified moisture content or soil to water ratio and expressed in terms of the pH scale Phytotoxic Substances  Chemicals that are toxic to plant Plow Pans  Subsurface soil layer having a greater bulk density and lower total porosity than layers above or below it as a result of pressure applied by normal plowing and other tillage operations Pore Size Distribution  Volume of the various sizes of pores in a soil  Expressed as % of the bulk volume (soil + pore space) Preferential flow  Nonuniform movement of water and its solutes through a soil along certain pathways which are often macropores Primary Minerals  Amineral that has not been altered chemical since deposition and crystallization from molten lava Proctor Test  Lab procedure that indicates max acieveably bulk density for a soil and the optimum water content for compacting a soil RechargeAreas  Ageographic area in which an otherwise confined aquifer is exposed to surficial percolation of water to recharge the ground water in the aquifer Regolith  Unconsolidated mantel of weathered rock and soil material on the earth’s surface  Loose earth materials above solid rock (approx. equivalent to the term soil as used by many engineers) Residual Material  Unconsolidated and partly weathered mineral materials accumulated by disintegration of consolidated rock in place Root Interception  Acquisition of nutrients by a root as a re
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