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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes.docx

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McMaster University
Harald Stover

1Chapter 4 Alkanes and CycloalkanesBernard HoOctober 25 201141 Introduction to AlkanesHydrocarbons that lackbonds are called saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes42 Nomenclature of AlkanesAn Introduction to IUPAC NomenclatureoTable 41 Parent chainoIf there is a competition between two chains of equal length then choose chain with greater number of substituentsoCyclo is used to indicate presence of a ring in structure of an alkaneNaming SubstituentsoNamed with same terminology used for naming parents except add letters yloTable 42oWhen an alkyl group is connected to a ring ring is generally treated as parent oHowever only true when ring is comprised of more carbon atoms than alkyl groupEx Propyl cyclohexane but 1Cyclopropyl butane Naming Complex SubstituentsoNaming branched alkyl substituents is more complex than naming straightchain substituents oBegin by placing numbers on substituent going away from parent chain2oPlace numbers on longest straight chain present in substituent 4 carbonsbutyloButyl group has one methyl group attached to it at 2 positionoThus this group is called a 2methlbutyl groupoTreat complex substituent as if it is a miniparent with its own substituentsoSome complex substituents have common namesAn alkyl group bearing three carbons can only be branched in one way and is called an isopropyl groupAlkyl groups bearing four carbon atoms can be branched in three different waysAlkyl groups bearing five carbon atoms can be branched in many more ways but here are two common waysAssembling the Systematic Name of an AlkaneoIf one substituent is present it should be assigned the lowest number possibleoWhen multiple substituents are present assign numbers so that first substituent receives lower numberoIf there is a tie then second locant should be as low as possible
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