Chapter 10 Definitions: Mediation: intervention in a dispute in order to resolve it. News values: The criteria journalists apply to determine whether a particular person or event is newsworthy, and the extent to which the person or event merits news coverage. Gatekeeping: The control of access to media publication or broadcast that determines what gains access according to the identity or character of the media outlet. Push technologies: Media forms that present or push toward audience members a limited range of contentoptionswithin a finite numberofsources. Conventional television,for example,offerstheviewer a numberof programs from whichto select atagiven timefrom arelatively limited arrayofchannels.The emphasis on push technologies is with the supply on offer. Pull technologies: Media forms that allow people to seek out, or pull out, content from a seemingly infinite array of options found within a seemingly unlimited range of sources. The internet is an example of pull technology, with an emphasis on user demand. Framing: Both a noun and a verb drawing attention to the boundaries of a picture, story or other means of communication places on that to which it refers; these boundaries tend to limit the range of interpretation by audiences or privilege particular readings. Freedom of the press: The freedom of the press and other media to exercise the right to free speech, usually in the name of the public good; the freedom of press and other media owners to pursue market interests unhindered by the state; this freedom is not absolute, but subject to certain legal limits. Access to information: Related to the concept of freedom of information, it refers to the principle that information collected by governments belongs to the Crown and citizens must appeal to governments for access to this information; this is the operating principle in Canada. In the United States, freedom of information is the more appropriate term because information collected by governments belongs to the people. Fourth estate: Themedia; refers to the roleof themedia in watching over theother powerful institutions in society. Representation: The production or construction of ideas or images in a communicative form; the depiction through language of an idea, event, person, or institution. Signifier: The physical form of the sign for instance, symbols such as words. Signified: The mental concept of what is referred to for instance, an object as we think of it when we hear a word. Publicsphere:Aplaceorspacewherepeoplecanmeetto discussanddebateissuesandideasofcommon concern.