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Communication Studies
Terry Flynn

Lecture 2 CMST 1a03: Introduction to Communication Alex Sévigny,APR, MCIPR, PhD (Winter Term, 2013) UHC2 – Chapters 12/13 - story about his extroverted shy self, overcame by signing up for gr 8 speech competition, made speech about his cat as an allegory for a criticism about the principal, then became interested in speaking - people remember how you made them feel after a speech - depersonalize the event of speaking (you are just an object used to communicate the message - get rid of the word ‘failure’ UHC, Chapter 12 Speech writing is a valuable skill. - planning, structure, and purpose - killer facts, killer punchlines and emotional appeal Choose a topic that interests you. Define your purpose.  Sense of purpose matters to the public  Be clear - to entertain, inform or persuade  Have a purpose statement  Evoke a response from your audience Descriptions – word picture Explanation – clarify ideas/concepts known but not understood Instructions – how-to Criteria for a good purpose statement  Receiver-oriented, specific and realistic. o Know your audience! o What interests/persuades/entertains them? o Be able to measure/test what you want to achieve o Should be achievable!  Suggest organizational pattern for speech (eg. Five steps)  Is not the thesis statement Thesis Statement - delivered directly to the audience - formulated later in the speech making process - central idea of speech Analyzing the occasion  Time, place, audience expectations  Get a feel of the place/audience (eg. Visit the area)  Speak to each person  Time – eg. If it is at 8:30am, make a joke about it such as no one is awake  Take advantage of everything! (eg. Time, distractions, etc!) Structuring the speech  Working outline, formal outline, speaking notes  Working outline: o Storyboard the speech o Only for you  Formal outline: o Headlines, topics  Once you’re really familiar with speaking and your topic, all you get are speaking notes Principles of outlining  Standard symbols: (use line-number feature on Word) I. Main point (Roman numeral) A. Sub point (Capital letter) 1. Sub-subpoint (standard number) a. Sub-sub-subpoint (lowercase letter)  Standard format (crazy outlines will distract)  Rule of division (3-5 main points) o “Never an I without a II, never anAwithout a B, etc.” o No dangling points – never have an idea and don’t wrap it up (always support!)  Rule of parallel wording o Parallel structures make speech easier to listen to  Eg. “I believe inA, B, and C. vs. I believe inA. I believe in B. I believe in C. (#2 is parallel structure) o ‘Preventive cures’help you before eating o ‘Participation cures’help you during and after eating Organizing your points in a logical order  Enough in the room distracting people already – make it easier for them to follow o Time patterns  Chronological order  Climax patterns – used to create suspense  Anticlimactic organization – reversed climax pattern o Space patterns  Eg. In Canada – go left to right, right to left, top to bottom, bottom to top, not all over the map o Topic patterns  Eg. Dividing states into agriculture, etc.  Well known categories can bore audience make new categories  Mnemonics – acronyms o Problem-solution patterns  Always give a punchline  Present solution after problem (one you like and/or don’t like), then go into the argument  Give answers to the problem before discussing them o Cause-effect patterns  Persuasive speeches often use effect-cause Motivated Sequence  The attention step draws attention to your subject  The need step establishes the problem  The satisfaction step proposes a solution  The visualization step describes the results of the solution  The action step is a direct appeal for the audience to do something o Call to action otherwise audience will forget what they’re there for o Something you want the audience to do Using transitions  They tell how the intro relates to the body of the speech  They tell how one main point relates to the next main point  They tell how your subpoints relate to the point they are part of  They tell how your supporting points relate to the points they support Beginning and ending the speech  Introduction  Form impressions early, remember what they hear last o Previewing main points o Setting the mood and tone of your speech  Eg. With example, anecdote, joke, your own tone and mood o Demonstrating the importance of your topic to your audience o Demonstrating the importance of your topic to others o Make sure point is applicable to larger society  Conclusion o Don
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