Leadership: occurs when particular individuals exert influence on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. Strategic leadership: leader"s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization. Formal leaders: appointed by the organization individuals with titles like manager, executive, supervisor, and department head. Expected to influence others, and they are given specific authority to direct employees. Do not have formal authority, and must rely on being well liked or being perceived as highly skilled to exert influence. Before 1940, a lot of people said yes. Trait theory of leadership: how you are wired" to become a leader. Sometimes we think that people are more likely to be a leader or that they are a more effective leader simply because they possess certain characteristics that we believe are associated with leadership.