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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Reading

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McMaster University
Teal Mc Ateer

Chapter 4 Reading Values  Broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  What we consider good or bad  Categories of values: o Intellectual o Economic o Aesthetic o Social o Political o Religious Occupational Differences in Values  Members of different occupational groups espouse different values  A good fit between values of employees and managers promotes employee satisfaction and commitment Values Across Cultures  Lots of failed business negotiations are because of a lack of understanding of other cultures values  Work centrality o Work is valued differently across cultures as central or not so central o People who think work is a central life interest will work when don’t have to because of wealth or will work longer hours o Japanese managers often work late  Hofstede’s Study o Researched about work related values over 40 different countries o Four basic dimensions that work value differed:  Power distance  extent to which unequal distribution of power is accepted  Uncertainty Avoidance  extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain situations  Masculinity/femininity  the differentiation between gender roles  Individualism/collectivism  whither they stress independence, individual initiative and privacy  Longterm/shortterm orientation  whether they stress persistence, perseverance, thrift and close attention to status differences o Makes cultural maps Implications of Cultural Variation  OB theories from North America might not translate well to other societies  As well, not all theories and practices that concern OB are designed in North America or even in the West  A lot come from Japan – most are team oriented  Appreciating global customers is important  Developing global employees is important o Better appreciation of differences in cultural values and the implications of these differences Attitudes  Fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people  Attitude  behaviour  Attitudes are function of what we think and feel  Belief + value  attitude  behaviour  Organizations often attempt to change attitudes of employees Job Satisfaction  Collection of attitudes people have aout their job  Two different aspects: o Facet satisfaction – employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job o Overall satisfaction – overall indicator of person’s attitude that cuts across all facets (“overall I like my job but a couple things could be improved”)  Measuring Job Satisfaction: o Job Descriptive Index (JDI) – questionnaire based on five facets of satisfaction “yes or “no” to certain phrases or words o Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) – indicate how happy based on “very satisfied” and “very dissatisfied” What Determines Job Satisfaction?  Discrepancy o Discrepancy theory – satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained  Fairness o Distributive fairness – has to do with outcomes we receive  People receive what they think they deserve from job  Equity theory – my outcomes/my inputs = others outcomes/others inputs o Procedural fairness – process that leads to those outcomes  When individuals see
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