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Chapter 8&9

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Emad Mohammad

CHAPTER 8: SOCIAL INFLUENCE, SOCIALIZATION AND CULTURE Social Influence in Organizations Information Dependence and Effect Dependence  Information dependence: reliance on others for info about how to think, feel, act  Individuals compare own thoughts, feelings, actions with others  Effect dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment  Managers reward/punish employees Social Influence in Action Motives for Social Conformity  Compliance: o Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment o Involves effect dependence o Individual adjusts behavior to the norm o Does not really subscribe to beliefs, values, attitudes o Ex. children behave because of external forces  Identification: o Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive/similar to oneself o Involves effective and information dependence o Will be motivated to rely on person for info on how to think/act if person is similar to you o Ex. child looks up to sibling/parent  Internalization: o Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm o Seen as right o Due to internal not external forces o Ex. religious leaders see their religion as right The Subtle Power of Compliance  Compliant individual is doing something that is contrary to the way he/she things or feels  Situation causes cognitive dissonance  Reduce dissonance by: 1. Cease conformity 2. Gradually accept beliefs, values, attitudes (more likely)  Compliance is the beginning of more complete identification and involvement with an organization Organizational Socialization  Socialization: process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group/organization  How organizations communicate organization’s culture/values to new members  New members need to learn: o Appropriate behaviours and expectations of their role o Norms and values of their work group o About the organization (history, traditions, mission, culture)  Want to avoid problems of role conflict and role ambiguity  Two kinds of fit that are important for socialization: 1. Person-job fit: match between employee’s knowledge, skills, abilities and the requirements of a job 2. Person-organization fit: match between employee’s personal values and values of organization  Organizational identification: extent to which an individual defines him/herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent  Socialization has a direct effect on proximal outcomes (P-J fit and P-O fit) which lead to more positive distal outcomes (organizational identification) Stages of Socialization  Anticipatory Socialization: o Formal process of acquiring skills/attitude (ex. through university) o Informal process (ex. through summer jobs) o Some organizational representatives discuss organization with potential hires at recruitment events  Encounter: o New recruit encounters day-to-day reality of life o Formal: orientation program and rotation through organization o Informal: getting to know and understand personality of boss and co- workers o Organization is looking for conformity to norms and behavior o Recruit interested in having personal needs and expectations fulfilled  Role Management: o New member fine tunes and manages role in organization o Has somewhat conformed to group norms o Member must balance organizational role with non-work roles and family demands o May begin to internalize norms and values of organization Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract  Unrealistic Expectations: o People hold expectations that are unrealistically high o Experience reality shock when enter organization o Perceptions are less favorable than expectations o Newcomers with higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance and job survival o High expectations from watching TV shows, teachers, trainers  Psychological Contract: o Psychological contract: beliefs held by employees regarding what they will receive from organization in return for what they give organization o Psychological contract breach: employee feels that organization ahs failed to fulfill promises/obligations o Contract breach can cause mistrust toward management, lower job satisfaction and commitment, higher turnover o Occurs because recruiters are tempted to promise more that organization can provide to attract candidates o It is important that newcomers develop accurate perceptions in formation of psychological contract Methods of Organizational Socialization  Organizations differ in terms of: o Who does the socializing o How it is done o How much is done  Organization may not be teaching employee how to act (ex. medical school trains doctors, business school trains business people)  Some do all of socialization (ex. police force, military) Realistic Job Previews  Realistic job preview: provide a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of the job to applicants  Obtain view of experienced employees and HR staff about positives and negatives of job  Incorporate view into presentations for applicants  Explain day-to-day realities to prospective job candidates  Sometimes preview involve simulations of actual job  Benefits: o Reduce turnover o Improve job performance o Increase job satisfaction Employee Orientation Programs  Employee orientation programs: designed to introduce new employees to their job, people they work with and organization  Includes: o Health and safety issues o Terms and conditions of employment o Info about organization (history, traditions)  Most take place during first week of entry  Can last one day to one week  Benefits: o Immediate effect on learning o Lasting effect on job attitudes and behavior o Higher organizational commitment Socialization Tactics  Socialization tactics: manner in which organization structure earl work experiences of newcomers/individuals in transition from one role to another  Collective vs. Individual Tactics: o Collective: number of new members are socialized as a group (ex. army boot camps, frat pledges) o Individual: socialization experiences that are tailor-made for each member (on-the-job training)  Formal vs. Informal Tactics: o Formal: segregating newcomers from regular members and providing with formal learning experiences o Informal: do not distinguish newcomer from more experienced member; on-the-job learning  Sequential vs. Random Tactics: o Sequential: fixed sequence of steps leading to assumption of the role o Random: ambiguous or changing sequence  Fixed vs. Variable Tactics: o Fixed: time table for newcomers assumption of role o Variable: no time frame to indicate when socialization process ends  Serial vs. Disjunctive Tactics: o Serial: newcomers are socialized by experienced members of organization o Disjunctive: role models and experienced members do not groom new members  Investiture vs. Divestiture Tactics: o Divestiture: organizations put new members through series of experiences designed to strip away self-confidence then teach norms of organization o Investiture: affirms incoming identity and attributes of new hires Institutionalized vs. Individualized Socialization:  Six socialization tactics can be grouped into two patterns of socialization  Institutionalized: o Collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, investiture o More formal and structured program o Reduces uncertainty o Encourages new hires to accept organizational norms o Lower role ambiguity and conflict o Increase job satisfaction and organizational commitment o Lower stress and turnover  Individualized: o Individual, informal, random, variable, disjunctive, divestiture o Absence of structure o Creates ambiguity o Encourages new hires to question status quo o Result in more innovative role orientation  Context of socialization: collective-individual, formal-informal  Content of socialization: sequential-random, fixed-variable  Social aspects of socialization: serial-disjunctive, investiture-divestiture Mentoring  Mentor: experienced person in organization who gives junior person special attention (ex. giving advice, assisting during early stages of career)  Mentor does not always have to be a boss  Mentors must perform two types of mentor functions to be effective: 1. Career Functions: o Sponsorship: mentor might nominate apprentice for advantageous transfers/promotions o Exposure and visibility: mentor might provide opportunities to work with key people and see other parts of organization o Coaching and feedback: mentor might suggest work strategies and identify strengths and weaknesses in performance o Developmental assignments: mentor can provide challenging work assignments that will help develop key skill/knowledge 2. Psychosocial Functions: o Role modeling: provides a set of attitudes, values, behaviors for junior person to imitate o Provide acceptance and confirmation: provides encouragement and support and helps apprentice gain self-confidence o Counseling: provides opportunity to discuss personal concerns and anxieties concerning career prospects, work-family conflicts, etc.  Formal Mentoring Programs: o Organizations scan formally assign mentors to apprentices o Still achieve career outcomes associated with informal process  Women and Mentors: o Senior people who are in best position to be mentors are usually men o Men lack experience in dealing with women in roles other than daughter, wife, mother o Concerns women have will be different from those men had at same position o Cross-gender mentorships less likely to be effective o Mentoring is more important in a woman’s career  Race, Ethnicity and Mentoring: o Limited ethnic/racial diversity at higher levels limit mentoring opportunities o Mentors tend to select apprentices similar to them o Cross-race mentoring focus on career functions more than psychosocial functions Proactive Socialization  Proactive socialization: newcomers play an active role in their own socialization  Proactive socialization behaviours: o General socializing: participating in social office events o Boss relationship building: initiating social interactions to get to know and form relationship with one’s boss o Networking: socializing with and getting to know members of the organization from various departments o Feedback-seeking: requesting info about how one is performing o Information-seeking: requesting info about one’s job, role, group and organization o Observation: observing and modeling behaviours of others o Behavioral self-management: managing one’s socialization through self-observation, self-goal setting, self-reward, rehearsal o Job change negotiation: attempts to change one’s job duties to increase fit between oneself and job o Informal mentor relationships: relationships with experienced organization members Organizational Culture What Is Organizational Culture?  Organizational culture: the shared beliefs, values, assumptions that exist in an organization  Provide uniqueness and social identity to organizations  Determine norms that develop and patterns of behavior that emerge  Important characteristics of culture: o Culture represents a “way of life” for organizational members o Culture is fairly stable over time (can persist despite turnover) o Content of culture can involve internal (innovation, risk taking, secrecy of info) or external (“put the customer first”, behave ethically toward competitors) matters o Culture can have strong impact on organizational performance and member satisfaction  Subcultures: o Smaller culture that develop within a larger organizational culture o Based on differences in training, occupation or departmental goals  Effective organizational culture will be able to manage subculture divisions The “Strong Culture” Concept  Strong culture: beliefs, values, assumptions that make up culture are intense and pervasive across organization  Strongly supported by majority of members  Cut across all subcultures  Consensus between members  Points on strong cultures: (1)An organization does not need to be big to have a strong culture (2)Strong cultures do not necessarily result in blind conformity (3)Strong cultures are associated with greater success and effectiveness Assets of Strong Culture  Coordination: o Right hand (finance) knows what the left hand (production) is doing o Strong cultures can facilitate communication o Different parts of organization can learn from each other o Important in team-oriented organizations  Conflict Resolution: o Sharing core values can help to resolve conflict o May differ on opinions about how to achieve core value but will still be working towards same core value  Financial Success: o Strong cultures lead to long-term financial success o If everyone in organization is working toward common goal  will be successful o Turnover rate will also be lower Liabilities of Strong Cultures  Resistance to Change: o Strong culture that was appropriate for past successes might not support new things o Can damage a firms ability to innovate  Culture Clash: o Strong cultures mix badly during a merger or acquisition o Two different firms with different work habits, attitudes and strategies come together o Have to be able to resolve culture clashes or merger will fail and will lose customers  Pathology: o Cultures may be based on beliefs, values, assumptions that support infighting, secrecy and paranoia o Strong culture may encourage unethical and fraudulent behavior o Ex. Enron Contributions to the Culture  The Founder’s Role: o Many culture reflect values of an organization’s founder o Ex. Walt Disney on Disney Company or Bill Gates on Microsoft o Imprint is kept alive through stories about founder passed on to successive generations of employees  Top management strongly shapes organization’s culture  Different managers have different priorities  Culture began by founder can sometimes cause conflict when top manager wants to see a change in direction Socialization:  Nature of socialization process is key to culture that emerges  Socialization is when individuals learn beliefs, values, assumptions  Strong cultures use step-by-step socialization process: 1. Selecting Employees: o Carefully select employees to obtain those who will be able to adapt to existing culture o Realistic job previews provided so candidates can deselect themselves 2. Debasement and Hazing: provoke humility in new hires so they are open to norms of organization 3. Training “in the Trenches”: o Employees begin to master one of the core areas of the organization o Experienced workers may start at bottom of ladder to make sure they understand how organization works 4. Reward and Promotion: used to reinforce employees who perform well in areas that support goals of organization 5. Exposure to Core Culture: cultures core beliefs, values, assumptions are asserted to provide guidance for behavior 6. Organizational Folklore: members exposed to stories that reinforce culture 7. Role Models: provide new members with role models whose actions are consistent with culture Diagnosing a Culture  Symbols: o Ex. have to walk through HR department to get to lockers shows how important HR is  Rituals: o Rites, rituals, ceremonies convey essence of culture o Ex. company picnics, parties, casual Fridays, free food one day a week  Stories: o Stories about past organizational events o Stories told repeatedly to successive generations of employees CHAPTER NINE: LEADERSHIP What is Leadership?  Leadership: occurs when particular individuals exert influence on goal achievement of others in an organization  Effective leadership: achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of workforce  Strategic leadership is a leader’s ability to: o Anticipate o Envision o Maintain flexibility o Thi
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