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Chapter 2

COMMERCE 1BA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Reinforcement, Career Development, Internal Control

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Chapter 2 – Personality
Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual
interacts with his or her environment
Five Factor Model of personality:
Social, talkative, vs. withdrawn, shy
oEmotional Stability
Stable, confident, vs. depressed, anxious
Tolerant, cooperative, vs. cold, rude
Dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive
oOpenness to experience
Curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative
Locus of control is a set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external
Self-monitoring is the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social
settings and relationships
High external control:
oBehavior determined by: fate, luck, powerful people
High internal control:
oBehavior determined by: self-initiative, personal actions, free will
Self-esteem is the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
Behavioral plasticity theory states that people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external
and social influences than those have high self esteem
Positive affectivity is the propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive
Negative affectivity is the propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people in a negative
Proactive behavior is taking the initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones
Proactive personality is a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take person initiative across
a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in ones environment
General self-efficacy is a general trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform
successfully in a variety of challenging situations
Core self-evaluations is a broad personality concept that consist of more specific traits that reflect the
evaluations people hold about themselves and their self worth
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or experience
oPractical skills include job-specific skills, knowledge, and technical competence
oIntrapersonal skills include problem solving, critical thinking, learning about alternative work
processes, and risk taking
oInterpersonal skills include interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, and conflict
oCultural awareness involves learning the social norms of organizations and understanding company
goals, business operations, and company expectations
Operant learning is learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain
Reinforcement Is the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviors
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