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11 Apr 2012

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Commerce 2BA3
Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation
Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
- The first aspect of motivation is the strength of the person’s work-related
behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job
- Persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks
- Quality of a person’s work
- Direction of a person’s work-related behaviour
- Have to work hard
- All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
Extrinsic and intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between
the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied
- Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from
performing one’s job
Extrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external
to the task; it is usually applied by others
- They have one theory in common
Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s
motivation is autonomous or controlled
Autonomous motivation: When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
Controlled motivation: When people are motivated to obtain a desired
consequence or extrinsic reward
- The availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation
stemming from the task itself
- The notion is that when extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the
motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases
Motivation and Performance
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Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to
achieving the objectives of the organization
2 forms of intelligence that is particularly important for performance:
1) General Cognitive Ability
- A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources
- Reflects an individual’s overall capacity and efficiency for processing information,
and it includes a number of cognitive abilities that are required to perform mental
- Predicts learning and training success
- Predicts job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations
- Even better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that
require the use of more cognitive skills and involve more information processing
- Necessary for performance
2) Emotional Intelligence
- The ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions
- Involves the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in
thought, understand and reason about emotions, and manage emotions in oneself
and others
- Individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of
emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving,
reasoning, thinking, and action
4 Branches Emotional Intelligence
1) Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
- Involves the ability to perceive emotions and to accurately identify one’s own
emotions and the emotions of others
- Basic level and is necessary to be able to perform the other steps in the model
2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking
- Refers to the ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to
guide and facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning
- One is able to use emotions in functional ways, such as making decisions
- Involves being able to shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions that can
help open to see things in different ways and from different perspectives
3) Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by
- Involves being able to understand emotional information, the determinants and
consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time
- At this stage, people understand how different situations and events generate
emotions as well as how they and others are influenced by various emotions
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4) Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
- Involves the ability to manage one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions as well
as emotional relationships
- This is the highest level of EI because it requires one to have mastered the previous
- At this stage, an individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own
emotions as well as others’ emotions to suit the situation
- EI has found that it predicts performance in number of areas, including job
performance and academic performance
Need Theories of Work Motivation
- The first 2 theories of motivation are need theories
Need theories: Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and
the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way
that contributes to performance
- Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can
satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals
The motivational character of needs:
- Are concerned with what motivates workers
- Process theories: are concerned with exactly who various factors motivate people
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
1) Physiological Needs
- Include the needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive, such as food,
water, oxygen, and shelter
2) Safety needs
- Include the needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured
and ordered environment
3) Belongingness needs
- Include needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, and friendship
4) Esteem needs
- Include needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and
confidence, and the appreciation and recognition of these characteristics by others
5) Self-actualization needs
- Needs are the most difficult to define
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